Turbine engine oil
Not every composition provides stable operation of the motor. The full potential of the vehicle is revealed only with proper selection.
The use of a turbocharger is the main difference between a conventional diesel engine and a turbocharged one. In diesel engines, pistons move by igniting a mixture of air and fuel. Then the energy of the exhaust gases is used, the impeller and the turbine of the compressor are also set in motion.
The turbine is built into the structure responsible for supplying air to the cylinder. It makes it so that air is forced inside while maintaining high pressure.
Thanks to this process, the power of diesel engines is increased by 25 percent. It can be made larger by installing an intercooler or an air cooler.
High thermal stress appears inside the structure. A large amount of soot is formed due to combustion products. Due to the high pressure, the working fluid is oxidized. This means she ages faster.
How to choose oil for turbine engines
Wear of parts leads to the fact that foreign particles get into the liquid. Because of this, diesel fuel burns with a high percentage of sulfur formation. Water enters the structure. The durability of the engine will be ensured only by a composition that retains its properties in any conditions. For this, additives are added.
It is necessary to build on the performance characteristics in the instructions. Attention deserves the viscosity according to SAE, which is required by a particular vehicle. Quality classification is also subject to this rule.
The compositions are divided into groups according to several classifications.
- ILSAC – developed by Asians.
- ACEA is the European quality standard.
- API – developed by Americans.
The API classification on the label is indicated more often. It is good if the manufacturer in the service book indicates what level of viscosity this or that car requires. This data is enough for store employees to select the right liquid.
In the service book, in some cases, the exact name of the manufacturer is also indicated.
The parameters are specified as follows – SF\CD. S means that oil is poured into gasoline engines. C indicates assignment to a group for diesel engines. The quality level is indicated by the second letter. The higher the Latin letter in value, the higher the quality level.
- CF-4. Stricter requirements for toxicity, improved performance.
- CG For vehicles manufactured after 94.
- CF-4. Four-stroke turbodiesels that were created after the 90th year.
- CE – high boost diesels, 1983 and later.
- E3-96. For liquids that are used in industrial and trucks, the boost of which is large enough. Suitable for working in difficult conditions.
- E2-96. Improved properties compared to E1-96.
- E1-96. Suitable for industrial and high boost trucks. Used in severe conditions of the Standard class.
- B3-96. Diesel cars, with and without turbocharging.
- B2-96. For turbocharged diesel engines only.
The book may not be available for used vehicles. Or those who have lost. Then information can be found without problems on the official website of manufacturers of cars or oils.
There is no difference between semi-synthetics and synthetics, mineral oils. The main difference is in the principle of oil production. This is reflected in some characteristics and cost. Synthetic oils are widely used, although they are more expensive.
Minerals are used in engines that are subjected to medium loads. It is optimal to use the compositions on Russian-made cars.
The main thing is not to mix the compositions of different brands and manufacturers. Otherwise, the chemical components will react with each other, due to which performance will decrease.
There are universal compositions. They are poured into gasoline and diesel engines. The first letters in the marking indicate the purpose.
The top class includes SG oils.
Types of oil for turbine engines
Synthetic can be used even at high altitudes, where the operating temperature reaches -50 degrees. For automotive technology, such compositions have been actively used since the 60s of the last century.
The difference between mineral water and synthetics lies in the unusual viscosity-temperature qualities.
Internal combustion engines require a liquid that would not change its properties in different operating modes. Synthetics are closer to the ideal characteristic.
At negative temperatures, multigrade oils are the least viscous. This means that there will be no problems with starting the engine at the same negative temperatures.
The oil layer gains load-bearing capacity with an oil base that is highly viscous at temperatures above 100 degrees.
Thickening additives are introduced into all-season types so that the viscosity at certain temperatures is sufficient. But thermal and mechanical effects on the liquid lead to the destruction of additives. Viscosity decreases during further operation.
The viscosity of synthetic is less dependent on temperature than that of mineral. Therefore, it is allowed not to introduce additives at all, or to use their minimum amount. This is another advantage that synthetics differ in.
Compliance with the operating conditions of the unit is an important requirement for oil. It is good when the correspondence is complete, but partial is also allowed. Even if the requirements are met, it is recommended to avoid prolonged operation of the internal combustion engine at high speeds of the HF.
The oil base oxidizes when exposed to high temperatures. This leads to thermal oxidative degradation. Because of this, the viscosity of the oil for the engine increases. Deposits appear on engine parts. Pistons and rings suffer in this situation.
Zakokosovka is a phenomenon that is familiar to every second or third driver. This is a situation where the oil burns out, is consumed in large quantities.
Engines with working fluids suffer from short trips during which high speed is maintained. Running time at normal temperatures is not enough, causing the engine to cool down. This leads to the formation of condensate, which degrades performance.
A measured driving regime extends the service life of fluids.
All-season – best in a stable climate, without severe frosts and extreme heat. If the temperatures are extremely low, winter oil is used. This also applies to summer.
On average, the mileage at one gas station does not exceed 10 thousand kilometers, but each manufacturer sets the terms separately. The composition is contaminated if not replaced in a timely manner. Heat is generated, the engine runs with increased friction.
The replacement interval is a conditional figure. Calculated based on optimal and severe operating conditions. Synthetics, semi-synthetics and mineral water change at different intervals, the difference is up to 2 thousand kilometers.
Synthetic oils are the most resistant to aggressive influences.
Change of oil becomes a necessity when:
- The appearance of a suspension with solid particles in the oil phase.
- Loss of lubricity. Because of what, the parts wear out. This will be indicated by the characteristic sounds coming from the engine compartment.
Engine flush is carried out not at the moment when the liquid has darkened, but inside the parts are covered with dirt. Dark liquid is a good sign.
Worse, when it remains fresh and colorless after several thousand kilometers. This indicates the presence of deposits, which cannot be immediately eliminated.
Complete disassembly of the engine in a car service is a solution for situations where deposits are found inside. There is not enough flushing fluid for this.
Ashless dispersants are additives that are used in automotive oils. Ashless means that there are no metals in the compounds. Dispersants is a word that refers to the grinding of contaminants, their dispersion.
During operation, the liquid becomes contaminated:
- Due to the ingress of foreign particles from the outside.
- When oxidation occurs, it results in the formation of insoluble particles.
Dispersants solve the problem of keeping contaminants in the oil in a finely dispersed state. They do not allow deposits to fall asleep in the form of precipitation. Otherwise, the mesh at the oil receiver is clogged. Substances are able to flush the engine and what is inside.
The fluid inside the engine mixes with air, or works in the form of films. This means that contact with air occurs constantly. Oxidative processes occur. But oxygen and temperature are not the only causes.
The combustion products of the fuel, its already oxidized part, also contribute. Antioxidant additives are introduced into the composition to slow down this process. They are needed for the decomposition of primary oxidation products. Free radicals under their influence go into a stable state.
The viscosity of the oil increases with operation without antioxidant additives. Increased flow of working fluid is a minimal consequence. Her performance is lost. Starting properties become unsatisfactory.
A number of additives are also responsible for the ability to resist wear and protect other parts from it. This is important for couples involved in friction. They operate in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication mode, when high specific pressures occur on the surfaces of the parts.
There is only one solution – to chemically modify the surface that is subjected to friction. The modified layers then interact with each other.
Factors affecting the choice of antiwear additives:
- Hydrolytic type stability.
- Preservation of thermal indicators.
- Interaction with non-ferrous alloys at the corrosive level
- Stability of lubricating properties, influence on them.
It is important to distinguish between friction modifiers and antiwear additives. The name antifriction has received a number of modifiers that reduce friction. They operate under conditions of elastohydrodynamic, boundary lubrication. Although some modifiers combine both of these functions.
A number of additives are introduced to protect ferrous and non-ferrous metal inside the engine. Either a protective film is formed, or the action of active substances that affect the surface is neutralized. Fixation is associated with physical absorption.
Chemical interaction is indispensable. Lead and copper layers are also formed by additives. The main requirement is the ability to retain properties to the effects of dispersants and detergents. Energy-saving oils with friction modifiers are often combined.
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