Glued laminated timber
Glued laminated timber is an important component in the construction of buildings and structures. Wooden country houses are built from it. The resulting buildings are distinguished by quality, environmental friendliness, aesthetics.
It is easy to breathe in houses made of wood. They improve health because they do not contain harmful artificial substances (provided that the manufacturer used EPI glue).
For creation, wood of solid coniferous species is used: cedar, spruce, pine, larch. First, the tree is sawn and then dried thoroughly, otherwise the structure will turn out to be short-lived. The logs are then glued together and processed using presses and milling machines. The length of the finished glued beam is at least 15m.
After drying, all wood is checked for existing bumps, branches, fungal infections. Boards on which wood is sawn are called lamellae.
The thickness is created by layers (lamellae). As a result, it is possible to obtain raw materials of special quality. The bar is even and resistant to shrinkage. Therefore, it is used in the installation of prefabricated buildings.
Pros and cons of glued beams
Advantages of glued bursa:
- wood does not change shape, does not deform;
- has a smooth surface, does not require grinding and additional materials for wall decoration;
- there is no moisture, which leads to the appearance of fungus and mold. Products are thoroughly dried, so the tree is not subject to decay;
- with its help, structures are created in 2-3 months;
- aesthetic appeal;
- almost no shrinkage;
- houses are easy to assemble. It is easy to work with this material.
Disadvantages of glued laminated timber:
- much more expensive than non-profiled wood;
- glue inside structures disrupts natural air exchange and circulation by 30%. This worsens the microclimate in the room. Decreased environmental friendliness.
What makes up the cost? The production technology is complex and labor intensive. The consumption of wood, other materials, production and labor costs affect the price. The efficiency and quality of structures will decrease if low-grade raw materials were used in the process of creation, negligence was allowed.
If after a couple of months the building collapses and sags, it means that inappropriate material was used in the manufacturing process. Real glued beams are not deformed.
Glued laminated timber has a competitor – profiled.
- Strength. Glued wins here. In the manufacture of profiled timber from logs, only the upper part is cut off, which is much stronger. The middle is not touched. Bonding and pressing help the material to be stronger.
- Humidity. Glued almost does not shrink, since its moisture content is not more than 14%. Profiled is more humid, although technologies are now being used that help achieve a moisture content of about 18%. However, glued is much more resistant to the appearance of fungus, mold.
- Price. Profiled is almost two times cheaper, so many people choose it. However, buildings from such a bar require cladding. Therefore, the cost as a whole, together with the finish, does not differ from the price of glued beams.
- Environmental friendliness. Both types are natural, so there are no harmful artificial impurities in them. However, glued is less “clean” because glue is used in the process. These mixtures are divided into groups depending on the danger. There is a class FC2, which is considered dangerous and unsuitable for home use. FC1 is a potentially dangerous group, FC0 is a safe class. Adhesives containing more than 0.5% mg/l of formaldehyde are considered hazardous.
- Shrinkage. Profiled products are not always amenable to additional drying, so they are more prone to shrinkage. This usually happens when the house is already built.
How to choose glued laminated timber
It is recommended to choose only from manufacturers who have proven themselves. It is better to overpay a little, but be sure of the quality and reliability of the product. When choosing, it is worth focusing on the magnitude.
The material is divided into window, wall and the one used for mounting beams. These types differ in thickness. If it is about 150 mm, a house or a summer cottage is built from a bar. But in cold weather it will be cold in the building. If residents live in the country all the time, it is better to choose a material with a thickness of 200 mm or more. Then in the winter the house will be comfortable.
The construction of a sauna or a bath from a beam requires structures with a thickness of at least 250 mm. Otherwise, the heat will not be stored indoors.
Companies that produce and sell the material offer samples. It is better to contact such firms. It is recommended to look at samples and the wood itself.
Samples are made perfect, so it is difficult to notice flaws in them. If possible, it is better to familiarize yourself with the finished building from a bar.
After erection, the building is given time to shrink. Moisture and fire are the main enemies of wood, so you have to protect the walls. Special formulations with antiseptic, antibacterial, fire-fighting properties are sold. This treatment will help the house last longer.
Painting will make the structure stronger. Suitable paint and varnish mixtures that protect the walls from precipitation, dust. Process the structure at a temperature of at least 5 degrees. You can not ignore the end parts. They break down faster under the influence of moisture and high temperature.
Structural parts of the house need protection. It is advised to keep an eye on the vertical bars, as they ensure uniform shrinkage of the casing. The process occurs without deformation and distortions to the sides. The roof is also equipped with a sliding fastener.
In the first years of service, the process of synchronous shrinkage is controlled by:
- inspect platbands, skirting boards, stairs for damage and deformation;
- shrink and tie bolts are adjusted by shortening.
From the inside, the building is also operated correctly. The room maintains a constant temperature and does not allow sudden changes. Humidity 75%. The temperature drops or rises slowly.
Too low humidity is not allowed. Suitable humidity for walls is 6%, and for air – about 45%. The indicators below are not welcome.
A sharp start of heating devices has a detrimental effect on the condition of the wood.
Prepare for heating the house in advance and carefully. Starting the device starts smoothly. If the building is two-story, overheating of the second floor is not allowed. The wood is drying out.
Warm up the house carefully and gradually. The optimum temperature is 18-20 degrees. In winter, it is strongly not recommended to leave the room without heating.
The worst danger is fire.. In 80% of cases, the residents themselves are the perpetrators of the disaster. To avoid this, you need to follow the safety rules.
- Constantly monitor the condition of the electrical wiring and the performance of electrical appliances.
- Keep an eye on the chimney, if any. The accumulation of soot in it is fraught with fire.
- Do not leave the stove or fireplace unattended. Coals or firewood sometimes fall out, so the operation of the system is constantly monitored.
- Do not smoke in the house.
The roof protects the room from cold, leaks and precipitation. But it performs its functions only with constant supervision. In winter, wet snow is removed from the roof. This will help prevent damage to the building.
Septic tanks operated nearby are subject to cleaning. This is necessary to protect the structure and comfortable living for residents. The accumulation of waste spreads unpleasant odors that the wood absorbs.
- Wet cleaning is periodically done in the room. A humidifier will help maintain the atmosphere.
- The rooms are constantly ventilated.
- Shrinkage adjustment work is done at least 2 times a year.
- Chimneys and flues are recommended to be cleaned regularly. The state of the heating system is monitored by a licensed company.
- Electrical appliances comply with the Euro standard.
- To avoid a nasty smell, it is necessary to monitor the condition of septic tanks and pumping stations. The layout of the sewerage system in the room has an unpleasant effect on the wood. Traps and siphons in bathrooms and toilets do not dry out if they are checked.
- House painting is done regularly. Only first-class compounds are chosen, since dubious mixtures break off over time, and this leads to the appearance of fungus and mold on the surface.
- The roof is cleaned of snow and fallen leaves.
Construction and maintenance
First lay the foundation (foundation). In this, glued laminated timber is no different from other materials. Formwork is installed, the foundation is poured, then proceed to waterproofing.
Next comes assembly. It is easy to assemble a building from ready-made blocks, since functional marking is carried out at the factory. After assembling the walls, the timber is treated with an antiseptic. Then the rafters are installed. After the roof, they move on to finishing, painting.
Malfunctions happen due to improper care and low-quality wood. The second can be avoided if you choose the timber wisely and buy only from trusted manufacturers. In the first case, the entire building must be periodically paid attention.
- Drainage of the entire structure is an important process. Drains, pipes and wells are thoroughly cleaned of dirt, debris, fallen leaves with a strong jet of water.
- Look behind the roof first. Damage that has appeared (scratches, cracks, chips) is eliminated, otherwise the resistance to precipitation and temperature changes will be violated.
- The gutter structure of the house is sometimes clogged. It is cleaned, otherwise moisture gets on the wood.
- Air vents in the attic are always clean and open. Thanks to them, moisture comes out.
- You can also visually inspect the product from a bar. Thus, faults and damages are detected.
Where not to use glued laminated timber
Despite the popularity of timber, this material is not recommended in the construction of baths and saunas. Arguments:
- walls breathe weakly, condensate accumulates;
- low-grade material is quickly covered with cracks, the bath does not hold heat;
- additional wall decoration, insulation will be required;
- the bath will not be durable, will cease to function in 3-4 months.
With the right choice, glued laminated timber pleases with aesthetics, cleanliness, and comfort for a long time.
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