Electric floor heating


The choice of a suitable underfloor heating option depends on whether it will be used as the main or additional heat source in the room. Consider all sources of heating in the house: radiators, heated towel rails, mobile heating devices. Next, it is important to determine the compliance with the technical characteristics of building materials and premises.

Types of electric underfloor heating

Kinds

Electric floors are divided into three types:

  • infrared – heating function according to the principle of infrared radiation;
  • thermomats – the room is heated by special thin cables (single / double-core);
  • cable – heating occurs using cable sections.

Varieties of infrared structures:

  • film;
  • rod.

Types of cable heating:

  • design for a thin floor;
  • heat storage system;
  • heating of direct action;
  • construction under a wooden covering.

Electric floor heating device

Principle of operation

The infrared film consists of two layers of polymeric material, between which passes a carbon nanostructure (heating element). The material emits infrared light, the wavelength is 5-20 microns.

The design contains strips of carbon and copper busbars. The width of the strip is 1.5 cm. Tires coated with silver connect the strips and pass an electric current.

On both sides, the heating element is protected by a special polymer that protects against moisture, fire and does not block infrared light.

The rod infrared floor is made in the form of numerous rods connected in parallel to each other using flexible type connecting wires. Inside the rods contains a mixture of silver, carbon, copper.

When an electric current hits the carbon, thermal energy is released.

Thermomats are made using a thin cable attached to a fiberglass mesh. For protection, the heating core inside the cable is closed with a special screen, insulating material and an additional sheath.

The heating temperature is controlled by a thermostat. It is connected to the power supply network due to a cold wire, the length of which is at least 2 m.

A special sleeve is used to connect the heating and cold cables. The surface temperature is controlled by a thermostat and temperature sensors.

The cable floor is characterized by high efficiency – there is an almost complete conversion of electric current into energy.

The function of the heating element, regardless of the type of system, is performed by the cable. It is divided into two types:

  • resistive;
  • self-adjusting.

Resistive cable can be single- or two-core. A single-core cable includes a metal core and an insulation layer. In a two-core cable, one core can perform the function of heating, the second – power. It is possible to have two heating conductors.

From the outside, the cable is protected by a metal braid and a screen. The amount of energy that is released by a self-regulating cable varies depending on the ambient temperature. The heating cable is supplied in the form of coils, rolls and sections.

Heating includes temperature controlled thermostats and temperature sensors to learn about environmental conditions for efficient operation.

Characteristics

Characteristics

The infrared floor kit consists of a film, installation wires, contact clamps, bituminous insulation, documentation (installation manual, passport, warranty).

Technical characteristics of film infrared coating:

  • length – 50 m;
  • width – 0.5-1 m;
  • thickness – 0.23-0.47 mm;
  • temperature – 31°С;
  • power consumption 1 m² – 25-35 W / h.

Specifications of rod infrared coating:

  • maximum length – 25 running meters;
  • width – 0.83 m;
  • distance between the rods – 0.10 m;
  • temperature – 28-31 ° С;
  • power consumption – 24 W / h.

The heating mat is supplied with a thin mat equipped with a cable with a high-temperature insulating layer, a mechanical regulator with a temperature sensor, a corrugated tube, and documentation.

Thermomat technical characteristics:

  • thickness – 4.5 mm;
  • width – 45 cm;
  • the maximum temperature of the heating element is 90°С;
  • power consumption 80-220 W/h.

The set of the cable device includes a heating element, a temperature sensor, a thermostat, fasteners, documentation, including an installation diagram and instructions.

Technical characteristics of cable underfloor heating:

  • the maximum temperature of the heating element is 65°C;
  • thickness – 7.5 mm;
  • power consumption – 110–200 W / h.

pros

Advantages

Infrared is energy efficient because it converts the radiated energy into heat. The design is more economical compared to cable systems. The heating of the surface occurs for several minutes.

In case of mechanical damage, only the failed segment of the structure loses its working capacity. The rest of the system continues to operate as usual. The space is heated evenly.

The covering is not exposed to processes of corrosion, is steady against ignition. It is possible to use the film in rooms with an increased load on the floor covering (in public places), and use the material as a wall heat source. Other benefits:

  1. Quick installation due to the absence of additional work. Installation takes less than 1 day.
  2. Operation is possible immediately after installation.
  3. Installation of the structure on any floor coverings without preliminary preparation and base screed.
  4. Using a thermostat adjusts the temperature in the room.
  5. Heating the air with infrared radiation is not accompanied by a change in the level of humidity.
  6. IR radiation does not harm the human body, but on the contrary, it produces a healing effect.

The use of heating mats saves the height of the room, since the installation requires no more than a few centimeters. The thermostat is energy efficient. There is no need for installation under large household appliances, furniture.

Mats are distinguished by simple installation technology. Other benefits:

  1. Rapid heating of the floor covering due to its proximity to the surface;
  2. Thickness (3-4 mm);
  3. Uniform heating of the room;
  4. No harmful radiation;
  5. Environmental safety of the materials used;
  6. Corrosion resistance.

The cable device is mounted directly into the screed, so it does not take up free space. During the life of the structure does not require additional maintenance. Does not contribute to the formation of dust during operation.

electric floor heating

The design does not use substances that cause allergic reactions. Other benefits:

  1. It implies the installation and maintenance of the required temperature regime.
  2. Thanks to thermal sensors, the warm floor receives information about the environment and reacts to changes in it.
  3. Does not require the use of additional devices.
  4. Differs in long service life, safety and reliability.

General Benefits:

  1. Installation in public areas.
  2. Structural elements are not visible under the floor covering and do not affect the design of the room.
  3. The temperature controller sets the automatic switching on and off of heating.
  4. It is used as the main or additional source of heating.
  5. Simple and quick installation that does not require special knowledge and equipment.
  6. Long service life.
  7. Uniform heating over the area.
  8. There is no need to install additional hardware to run.

Minuses

Problems

The disadvantage of infrared coverage is the need to mount it exclusively on a flat surface, otherwise the heating may not work correctly.

Contacts are supplied in the kit – it is not always possible to connect the contact to the material the first time, so you have to cut the film and connect to another contact, which requires additional film costs.

If there is no gap of 2-3 cm between infrared heating and furniture, appliances, heating occurs, which leads to darkening of surfaces, overheating of individual sections of the film.

Heating mats as a source of heating are used only in combination with those floor coverings that are characterized by a high level of heat conductivity. In the event of mechanical failures, the system stops functioning.

It is forbidden to start operation immediately after installation, the minimum time interval between installation and use is 2 days. If glue is used during the installation procedure, operation begins no earlier than a week later.

Thermomats do not guarantee complete fire safety.

The cable device provides uneven heating of the room. Insufficient heating efficiency of the floor covering is noted. The installation procedure is carried out with a screed. Installation takes 3 days.

The choice of flooring suitable for cable construction is limited to tiles and granite. In case of damage, the heating system completely fails. Operation is allowed at least 14 days after completion of the installation procedure.

The cable device does not guarantee full fire safety and is subject to corrosion processes.

disadvantages of electric underfloor heating

General disadvantages:

  1. The need to install the structure only on free areas of the surface (without appliances and furniture) limits the thermal output.
  2. Furniture prevents the uniform passage of heat flow, so there are difficulties in using the electric floor as the main source of heating.
  3. Permissible temperature on the surface of the floor covering is 31°С. Heating of the room to a comfortable temperature of 20-22°C takes place over a long period of time.
  4. The thermostat, which is equipped with an electric underfloor heating, regulates the temperature of the heating elements, not the room.
  5. Electric heating is characterized by high operating costs associated with increased energy consumption.
  6. In rooms with high humidity there is a risk of electric shock. In order to improve electrical safety, additional costs are required for RCD (residual current device) and grounding.
  7. Heating cable devices emit an electromagnetic field that is harmful to the human body.
  8. If the system is used as the main source of heat in large areas, a powerful electrical wiring is required for correct operation.

How to choose an electric underfloor heating

How to choose

If the purpose of the electrical structure is to maintain a comfortable floor temperature (not heating the room), and linoleum, parquet, carpet, laminate acts as a floor covering, then infrared film is a suitable option.

If the heating is installed under the tile, then in this case the use of the film is impractical, since gypsum-fiber sheets (GVL) are laid between it and the floor covering for the purpose of thermal insulation.

It is recommended to use heating mats under the tiles: the flooring is laid directly on the heating with tile adhesive immediately after installation. In this case, the lack of thermal insulation contributes to the rapid heating of the surface and reduces energy consumption.

When choosing between cable technology and a mat, be guided by the possibility of raising the level of the floor in the room. The laying of the mat takes place directly under the coating, so the surface rises no more than 1.5 cm.

For cable installation, a 3-5 cm screed procedure is required. In the final form, taking into account the adhesive and the tiled flooring, the surface rises by at least 4 cm.

Features of heating with an electrical system:

  1. For full-fledged heating of a room in which there are no other heat sources, an electric heated floor should occupy at least 70% of the room area.
  2. Only space free from furniture and appliances is taken into account.
  3. If the room is too crowded with furniture, this heating system will be ineffective.
  4. To maintain a comfortable temperature in the room, the specific power of the structure should be in the range of 150-180 watts.

electric floor heating

A functional element of the electrical system is the temperature controller. Thermostats are divided into two types:

  • mechanical;
  • electronic.

The mechanical device involves constant manual adjustment of turning the heating on and off, changing the temperature regime. The electronic thermostat requires you to enter parameters once, which are then automatically activated.

You can set the desired temperature, program the device to turn on and off at a specific time.

Criterias of choice:

  • characteristics and features of the premises;
  • use as a main or auxiliary heat source;
  • technical characteristics of electrical wiring;
  • type of flooring;
  • the need for smart management.

Which is better

Which is better

When choosing an electric underfloor heating, pay attention to the package, the presence of installation instructions, a technical passport. The documents indicate all the characteristics of the device, including power, length, operating voltage.

The kit must contain fasteners with which the cable, film or mat is installed. It is better to immediately refuse the material in a damaged package or with obvious defects.

An efficient and high-quality floor heating device works with a thermostat that maintains the desired temperature and saves energy.

It is recommended to give preference to fireproof, rust-resistant, environmentally friendly materials without harmful radiation. Underfloor heating should not affect the level of humidity in the room.

If you plan to install a warm floor in the house, the material must be suitable for various types of floor coverings. An efficient system quickly heats the floor surface to the required temperature.

If the design occupies the entire area of ​​​​the room (used for full heating), it should evenly increase the temperature in the room.

Exploitation

Exploitation

If infrared thermal film is used as the main source of heating, it must occupy at least 70% of the floor surface. It is not recommended to use it for heating in difficult climatic conditions.

In this case, the infrared film coating serves only as an additional heat source. The cut of the thermal film is carried out only in a specially indicated place – this is taken into account when calculating the amount of material.

Infrared heating is also applicable to utility buildings that cannot be equipped with central heating. The use of thermal film at sub-zero temperatures prevents freezing and icing of the porch and pipeline.

Thermomats are used to heat the floor for a short time. The use of mats is advisable if it is not planned to increase the current level of the floor (thick screed).

Thermomats are mounted in a layer of tile adhesive, the thickness of which does not exceed 3-5 mm.

Cable underfloor heating is used as the main source of heat in rooms where it is difficult to install central heating. In most cases, the system is equipped with rooms located on the first floors of buildings, bathrooms, corridors, toilets.

The coating is mounted directly on the reinforcing mesh or heat-insulating layer. It is possible to use a cable floor for outdoor heating:

  • lawn heating, soil heating in greenhouses;
  • in order to eliminate icing of gutters, drains, roofs, pipelines;
  • for heating stairs, driveways, sidewalks.

Installation:

  1. The direct action system heats the surface for a short period of time. Installation is carried out for the purpose of full heating or heating of individual rooms.
  2. The storage cable device is economical due to the accumulation of heat.
  3. When installing the cable system under a wooden floor covering, the free space is filled with a heat-insulating layer, the cable is placed on a metal mesh.

Precautionary measures:

Precautionary measures:

  1. To ensure the required level of heating, the power and type of power cable are carefully selected, thermal insulation is organized according to the instructions.
  2. Do not lay the cable under furniture without legs and large household appliances to avoid overheating.
  3. Shortening the cable has a negative effect on strength, so select the parameters of the heating elements in accordance with the size of the room.
  4. During the installation process, do not work in heavy shoes and step on the cable.
  5. Draw up a mounting diagram – it will be needed if the heating elements are damaged.
  6. A corrugated tube is used to connect the temperature sensor.
  7. Upon completion of the installation of the electric underfloor heating, check all connections by measuring the resistance level.
  8. The system is connected only after the screed has completely dried.

Guarantee

Guarantee

The warranty period for underfloor heating depends on the type:

  • infrared film – 15 years;
  • infrared rod – 20 years;
  • thermomats – 20 years;
  • cable – 20 years.

The warranty is valid if the reason for the failure of a particular segment of the structure or the entire system was the original malfunction – a factory defect.

The warranty is valid in case of malfunction of the underfloor heating already during operation, except for the following cases:

  1. The material has traces of mechanical damage as a result of violation of the conditions of transportation, installation, storage.
  2. The cause of the burnout was a mechanical or chemical effect on the material.
  3. The heat source was used without the use of a thermostat.
  4. The system was not used for its intended purpose.
  5. The heating elements failed due to an accident in the domestic environment (flooding with water, voltage drop).
  6. The installation and use rules described in the instructions for the warm floor are violated.
  7. The heating was connected to the power supply network in violation of the rules specified in the documentation (the current strength and voltage in the network are higher than in the instructions for the warm floor).
  8. The electrical structure was installed close to heat sources.
  9. Failure is caused by irresistible natural and man-made phenomena (lightning strike, fire).

guarantee

Subject to the warranty conditions, the manufacturer replaces the failed section or system, depending on the type of underfloor heating. The company does not bear the costs associated with the delivery of the material.

For replacement in accordance with the terms of the warranty, a list of documents is provided:

  • Warranty card filled in according to the rules (original);
  • a document on the purchase of the material with the specified date (otherwise, the calculation of the warranty period will begin from the moment the production is completed);
  • photographs certifying the operation of the underfloor heating in accordance with the requirements specified in the instructions;
  • in the absence of photographs, it is possible to call specialists who will testify that these requirements are met.

Faults and repairs

Faults, repairs, spare parts

In an electric underfloor heating, malfunctions are associated with three problematic details:

  • Temperature regulator;
  • temperature sensor;
  • a heating element.

Structural repair begins with determining the source of the failure. In the case of preliminary repairs, the cause is usually the failure of the heating element due to the use of construction tools.

If initially the causes of the breakdown are unknown, it is required to measure the supply voltage. These parameters are indicated in the technical data sheet. The maximum deviation from the data specified in the passport should not exceed 5%.

When checking the temperature sensor, the indicators should be in the range of 5-30 kOhm (the exact parameters are indicated in the instructions).

If the cause of the malfunction is a temperature sensor or thermostat, the unsuitable part is replaced. The failure of the heating element requires the dismantling of the floor covering, the opening of the screed, and the repair of damaged sections of the cable.

Manufacturers

Manufacturers

Caleo is specialized in the production of infrared film flooring. The material is laid in a “dry” way without prior screed under carpet, laminate, parquet or linoleum. The film is cut to heat several zones or rooms.

Without taking into account the floor covering, the floor thickness is 0.5 cm. The heating source does not affect the level of dust and humidity in the room.

If one or more areas are damaged, the rest of the material continues to function properly. Warranty periods for materials:

  • Caleo Platinum – 15 years;
  • Caleo Gold, Grid – 15 years;
  • Caleo Line – 7 years;
  • Caleo thermostats – 2 years.

Devi specializes in the production of electric underfloor heating equipment. In addition to heating elements – cables, the company produces related materials: thermostats, thermostats, connecting elements.

Devi

The warranty for cables and thermomats is 20 years. The company’s product range includes:

  1. DEVIflex is a two-core cable system installed in a screed. Supplied with all accessories. The cable lies to a depth of no more than 7 cm, is characterized by increased strength and flexibility.
  2. DEVImat – thermomats in the form of one- or two-core cables attached to a self-adhesive film. They are installed directly under the floor covering.
  3. DEVIdry – designed for laying under laminate, wood, parquet boards. Equipped with protection to achieve a high level of safety when the cable comes into contact with wood.
  4. DEVIreg – thermostats designed to control electric underfloor heating.

Electrolux manufactures various categories of household appliances and equipment, heated electric floors are one of the industries. Warranty – 20 years. The range is presented in the form of heating mats, cable sections and thermostats:

  1. Eco Mat is a thermomat without harmful electromagnetic effects.
  2. Multi SIZE Mat – ultra-thin material on an elastic basis.
  3. EASY Fix Mat is a self-adhesive mat on textile mesh.
  4. Twin Cable – two-core heating cable with increased power.
  5. Thermotronic Basic, Avantgarde, Touch – universal and programmable thermostats of mechanical, electronic type with touch and liquid crystal displays.

Electrolux

Energy produces heating cables and mats with a warranty period of up to 20 years, thermostats with a touch or liquid crystal display, electromechanical, 3D models. Range:

  1. Energy Mat is a thin mat with a two-core resistive cable and a polymer mesh.
  2. Energy Cable is a two-core cable system with a cold outlet.
  3. Energy Universal is a universal electrical design with a two-wire cable and a power output.
  4. Energy Light Plus is a thermomat that does not raise the floor level with a polymer mesh and a two-core cable.
  5. Energy Light is the thinnest mat with a polymer mesh and a single-core cable.

National Comfort specializes in the production of various types of heated electric floors and thermostats. The products are guaranteed for up to 15 years. Range:

  1. Screed-mounted systems – heating sections consisting of single-core wires, mounting ends, couplings.
  2. Without screed – a thin floor based on a heating mat.
  3. Film constructions – a heating film mounted under the floor covering.
  4. Thermoregulators – electronic, mechanical, with liquid crystal and touch displays.

Neoclima

Neoclima produces heating mats and electrical sections with a warranty period of 18 years. Products are characterized by simple and quick installation, versatility, absence of electromagnetic radiation, long service life. Range:

  1. Mats are two-core, single-core – for any type of floor covering.
  2. Two-core heating sections – mounted in a screed under any floor coverings.

Teplolux produces a range of electric floor systems with a guarantee of 20-25 years. The material is environmentally friendly, it is used as the main or additional source of heat. The operation of “smart” systems can be controlled even with a smartphone. Range:

  1. Profimat – two-core heating mats mounted in tile adhesive.
  2. Profiroll – sections with two-core cables installed in a coupler.
  3. Alumia is a thin material containing layers of foil and cable.
  4. Express is a warm floor that is laid on top of the floor covering and covered with a regular carpet.
  5. MINI is a cable structure with a heating mat as a base.
  6. TLOE – single-core cable system in a coupler.
  7. TROPIX is a thin heating mat for installation in tile adhesive.
  8. TLBE is a two-core cable with installation in a coupler.
  9. Green Box is a cable designed for heating rooms with numerous furniture or appliances.
  10. Slim Heat – film coating for heating.

Thermo

Thermo specializes in the production of underfloor heating with a lifetime warranty. The company provides customers with extended service, which is valid for the entire life of the material. Range:

  1. Thermomats are thin structures without raising the floor level.
  2. Heating cable – mounted in a coupler, suitable for domestic and industrial use.
  3. Heating for certain types of flooring – parquet and laminate.
  4. Self-regulating heating cable – used without a thermostat, reacts to environmental changes.
  5. A single-core heating cable is a budget option for underfloor heating.
  6. Thermoregulators of mechanical and electronic type.

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