In expensive cars, the problem of sound insulation is solved by the manufacturer even at the stages of concept creation. The situation is different in cheap models, where noise protection is ignored or a minimum amount of work is carried out to soundproof two or three nodes.
Airborne noise is generated by the engine and transmission. Exhaust mechanisms, tires and door seals are also noisy – sound interference depends on the degree of development of the design of these components.
Another type of noise, which is called structural noise, occurs due to vibrations of the power unit, transmission mechanism and chassis. Suspension elements are vibration conductors to composite body panels and floor elements.
The comfort of a trip in such cars is reduced to a minimum.
Constant irritability, fatigue while driving, the inability to listen to music – these factors push the driver to take steps to soundproof the car using high-quality materials and modern technologies.
Types of car soundproofing
These are bitumen-mastic tiles glued to the cleaned metal of the car body. The basis of car noise insulation, which dampens the vibration waves of the engine, transmission and suspension transmitted to the body.
The thickness and structure of the vibration damper is selected according to the thickness of the car body. Vibration isolators-self-adhesives are applied as the first layer of soundproofing of the body, giving it additional strength.
They are laid in the second layer, on top of the vibration dampers. They perform a dual function: they protect the interior of the vehicle from external noise and insulate the hood of the car.
Soft and highly porous structures that absorb sound waves. The absorption coefficient reaches 95%.
Eliminate squeaks, beating of the seals of the joints of panels and rods in the car. These are sound insulators for machine parts.
Principle of operation
Reduce the amplitude of vibrations and vibrations of the mechanical components of the machine. The sound that occurs in the units of the car, when it hits the surface, is converted into vibrations of the full frequency range.
To absorb them and convert the vibrational energy into heat, special materials with viscoelastic properties are used. They consist of viscous bitumen and mastics, covered with a layer of foil on top.
The elastic material rubs against the foil, and the energy of mechanical vibrations is converted into thermal energy. On the reverse side, an adhesive composition is applied to the vibration damper sheets, which fixes the sheet on the floor or ceiling of the machine.
They act as a barrier to vibrations, suppressing them to a minimum. The flexible structure of sound insulators allows them to be installed on parts of complex configuration – in the passenger compartment and on the trunk of a car.
The area of contact of the sound wave with the noise insulator is so extensive due to the cellular structure that the sound is lost in numerous voids.
Characteristics and advantages of soundproofing for cars
Here is a list of vibration damping materials and list their characteristics, which have been confirmed by research laboratories:
The basis is bitumen and mastic. The top is covered with aluminum foil. The recommended treatment area is limited to 50% of the total vehicle surface.
This is necessary to avoid making the structure heavier, because the specific gravity of BiMast Bombs is 6 kg/m2. 4mm sheets cut into 0.4m pieces2.
Lighter than the previous type, but the foil layer is replaced with paper. Warming up is required before installation on the car. The characteristics of thickness, dimensions and specific gravity are the same as those of the previous BiMast brand.
Made elastic and resilient, applied without heating. For strong adhesion to complex surfaces, it can be slightly heated, this improves the adhesion of the adhesive. The bitumen-mastic basis is covered on top with non-woven material.
The material is thick – 3 mm, and the sheets are formatted in size 0.53×0.75 m. Given that the material is one third lighter than others, BiMast processes up to 60% of the surface.
The product used for vibration protection of plastic and composite surfaces, the specific gravity is 3.0 kg/m2. Sheets are mounted in a cold state.
The width and length of the sheets are the same, but they are thin (2 mm). Up to 70-80% of the components of the car are processed.
It is practical for application in those places where it is undesirable to make the structure heavier (door surface). Due to the elastic structure, it is mounted without heating.
The thickness reaches 2.3 mm, the specific gravity indicator is 4 kg / m2. They can process up to 80% of the car area. Sheet 0.53 m wide and 0.75 m long.
Moisture resistant bitumen, adhesive base. Withstands aggressive environmental influences, resistant to decomposition. When processing surfaces, Vizomat warms up to 40-50 degrees. The relative weight is insignificant.
Suitable for insulating car doors and ceilings.
The first type of soundproofing materials on a fiber-structural basis includes the “felt-bitumen” structure, while the felt is natural or made from synthetic fibers.
Natural fiber absorbs moisture intensively. Over time, this leads to rotting of the material and the appearance of rust on the metal in those places where it was used. The disadvantage disappears in artificial felt: it is moisture resistant and does not decompose.
The second type includes synthetic gas-filled compositions.
Most often, motorists use these types of sound insulators:
Noise isolator Accent
Practical, easy to use and lightweight material with a weight of 0.5-0.8 kg/m2. Synthetic layers on top are covered with foil that protects against moisture; a layer of adhesive is applied on the bottom.
The sound absorption coefficient (KZP) with tight installation reaches 70-90%. The sheet thickness is 10, 15 or 20 mm. They are cut into rolls of 0.75 m2.
Outwardly, it is no different from the Accent, but the internal structure is different. The cells are small, capable of capturing and suppressing frequencies from 600 Hz to 4000 Hz, while the Accent has an upper bar of suppressed frequencies equal to 3000 Hz.
The top coating is made in the form of a perforated lavsan or PVC film. Below is an adhesive layer. The thickness of Isoton is 10 and 20 mm with dimensions of 1×2 m or 2×2 m. Weight – 0.25-0.5 kg / m2.
Noise-absorbing and anti-creak material. It dampens the sound waves of the reflected nature, absorbing them in the expanded state. Available in two versions – 5 and 10 mm thick. Weight – 0.4 kg / m2. KZP reaches 60%. The size of a standard sheet is 1×0.75 m.
An improved version of the previous sound absorber in terms of sound absorption. They are covered with plastic panels. The sound absorption coefficient reaches 85%. The specific gravity is less than that of Bitoplast and is 0.35 kg/m2. Leaf area – 0.75 m2.
Material with an adhesive layer isolates sounds and heat flows, made on the basis of polyethylene foam. Thermal conductivity – 0.038 W / K. Operating temperature range: from -70 to +80°С. The manufacturer supplies sheets 4 or 8 mm thick, 1×2 m in size.
The material is recommended for use on wheel arches and in the bulkhead of the engine compartment, where high temperatures occur. Reduces noise up to 18 dB.
Seals for cars
In the role of sealants, motorists often use improvised cushioning materials: foam rubber, carpet (carpet), plasticine. They are short-lived, decompose under the influence of external influences. Factory production is much more efficient.
Seals process gaps while absorbing noise. When compressed, BitoPlast rushes to its previous state, has a “memory”, therefore it fills the joints to the limit. It is sold in the form of samples 1×0.75 m with a thickness of 5 mm. Weight – 0.4 kg / m2bullpen – 60%.
The improved brand of BitoPlast is an open structure of thousands of cells. Replaces Accent on complex surfaces. The material is elastic and flexible, dampens vibrations to low values, and is provided with an adhesive surface.
The sound absorption coefficient reaches 85%. The thickness and size are the same as those of BitoPlast, but it weighs half as much.
Antiskrip for cars Madeleine
It is a dense decorative material with a sticky composition applied from below. Thoroughly seals the minimum gaps at the joints of air ducts.
Thickness Madeleine – 1 or 1.5 mm, it belongs to the category of materials with low weight (0.34 kg / m2). Standard size plate area – 2 m2.
From liquid soundproofing materials, the following have become widespread:
The paste of the Swedish company AUSON AB is available in the form of an aerosol spray can. It is made on a polymer basis, is plastic, turns vibrations into heat.
It is applied with a roller, sprayer or brush on a degreased metal or plastic surface in several stages, layer by layer, until a film of the required thickness (from 1 to 2.5 mm) is obtained.
On original surfaces with a thickness of 0.5 to 5 mm, a durable polymer coating is obtained that protects against noise and has water-repellent and anti-abrasive properties. 2-4 kg of material is enough per square meter.
Soundproofing Dinitrol 479
The composition contains synthetic rubber, which is a noise-insulating and anti-corrosion material. It is used for drawing on the bottom of the car, protects from damages by gravel.
A film of 1-1.5 mm is applied with a brush or spray, polymerized in 6-12 hours.
Mastic Noise LIQUIDator
Vibration-absorbing and anti-corrosion mastic gives a noise reduction of 3 dB. It is recommended to apply it on rigid parts with a relief surface (on arches). The work uses a spatula.
The disadvantage of vibration dampers is their large weight due to the bitumen that is part of it. The total weight of the car when treated with a vibration isolator increases by 50-60 kg.
When operating such a car, fuel consumption rises by 2-2.5%, driving dynamics and maneuverability decrease. In addition, the risk of sagging of the door treated with a bituminous vibration insulator increases.
Sheet bituminous materials do not completely isolate the car from noise:
- The thickness of 4 mm does not protect against vibrations, the recoil is achieved at 10 mm, but this dramatically increases the additional weight of the car.
- The sheet adheres poorly and bends on complex spherical surfaces.
- Materials do not work at temperatures above +30 and below -20 degrees.
Which one to choose
Choose samples for vibration isolation according to technical characteristics – specific gravity and CMF. In many cases, the first indicator becomes decisive. The higher the value, the better and more effectively the material dampens vibrations.
The consumer should be interested in such features:
- how difficult it is to mount this material;
- whether it is subject to easy flexion and extension;
- whether it has plasticity;
- how it behaves when sticking on curved surfaces;
- whether a heat gun is used for heating.
Seals are compared according to the following properties:
- how tightly the parts between which they are installed are in contact;
- how effectively eliminate squeaks;
- what is the resistance to abrasion;
- how long it takes to restore the previous shape, what is the elasticity of the deformation;
- how they can compress when used in small gaps between parts.
Noise isolation protects against mid- and high-frequency noise in the audio range. Efficiency is directly proportional to the thickness of the material.
The specific gravity indicator for soundproofing blocks is not critical; for them, the sound absorption coefficient is recognized as the main one. Ideally, the BFC is 1, but materials with an BFC value of 0.8-0.9 are considered the most suitable for car soundproofing.
Products of the sound and heat insulation group have a number of advantages in the form of low cost, moisture resistance, good heat reflection. But materials in this category cannot be basic, they are used as heat insulators under the hood of a car.
What is the best soundproofing for a car
- When choosing vibration isolation materials, consider the structural characteristics of the base of the sheet – mastic. If during the rolling of the sheet on the surface the mastic is squeezed out, spreads after heating, then the quality of the material leaves much to be desired.
Pay attention to the stickiness and quality of the top layer, because the foil acts as a reinforcing coating. Too thin material is torn during installation.
- It is important to take into account the technical characteristics of the vibromaterial. ILC should be as large as possible, and the specific gravity should be as small as possible. The vibration isolator is chosen non-toxic, does not emit foreign odors after installation in place.
The service life is equal to the life of the car, and even exceeds it.
- For the gaps formed between the door casings, BitoPlast is suitable, and the edges of the glove box lid, millimeter joints on the panel are glued with Madelin.
The purpose of using vibration isolation materials is achieved if it is possible to reduce vibrations coming from the engine compartment, wheel arches and transmission. Up to 50% of the body surface is pasted over with plates, which is not critical for the total mass of the car.
The procedure for mounting an anti-vibration isolator takes place in several stages:
- Clean the body surfaces from dirt, rust and dust, degrease.
- First, remove the protective layer of the vibration isolation sheet and place it on the surface to be treated.
- Preheat the sheet using a building hair dryer on the side of the adhesive layer evenly, without boiling.
- Glue the sheet to the surface and roll the mounting roller over it.
The installation method, when heating takes place inside the machine after gluing one end of the sheet, is not recommended. It threatens to damage car interior parts and melt paintwork.
When buying soundproofing materials, be interested in documents that guarantee that products comply with sanitary and hygienic standards. These conclusions indicate that the product is of high quality and is harmless to humans.
A major manufacturer in the Russian market. Through a network of regional representatives, StP supplies popular soundproofing, soundproofing and sealing materials to the market.
They have been certified, which is confirmed by hygienic conclusions. Standardplast products are affordable.
The products of the SGM-Techno company are also widely known to consumers of specific products. It is a diversified enterprise that develops and manufactures special products and materials for car noise insulation under the SGM-vibro (SGM) brand.
The products are characterized by good quality and low cost.
A buyer with high demands for quality will suit the products of the Russian company Teknikal Group.
The research and production enterprise develops and creates noise and vibration insulating materials for vehicles, based on modern innovative materials and technologies.
Developer and manufacturer of self-adhesive fabrics used in anti-noise car tuning. Every third of the professionals surveyed claims that the company’s products meet the criteria for modern noise insulators.
The company’s products occupy the middle price sector of the market and are suitable for most car models.
Advertising from sponsors: //