4 types of engine oil

Motor oils perform several important functions at once:

  1. They cool engine parts.
  2. Make effective removal of exploitation products.
  3. Reduce friction.
  4. Lubricate the mechanisms inside.

Machine lubricants are divided into 2 types: according to the SAE standard for viscosity and according to API standards for physical characteristics. A lubricant is selected at the stage of creating a car engine project, and it is better to use the one recommended in the instructions.

Synthetic, organic and semi-synthetic lubricants are produced. Synthetic, according to experts, are considered to be of high quality, but their price is high.

Semi-synthetic has a lower price, but the quality is no longer so high. Organic lubricant has been proven by research to be of poor quality, but the price is low.

Synthetic is not used in modern cars, only in older models.

Gasoline engine oil

For petrol

Viscosity of oil for a gasoline engine

The main requirement for this parameter is a stable level, regardless of the temperature and its sharp change. It is difficult to achieve such a result, so this item can be divided into 2 more: summer lubrication and winter lubrication. It is recommended to use only a certain type in a certain season.

Depending on the level of frost, lubricants are distributed into six more groups (for 0 degrees, -5, -10, -15, -20, -25). Lubricants are also divided depending on the level of temperature increase (for 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 degrees).

There are lubricants suitable for a specific temperature range indicated on the package. Selecting a product according to the ambient temperature will ensure excellent motor performance and a long service life.

API gasoline engine oil classification

The separation of oils depends on the operating conditions of the machine. The corresponding designations are “S” and “C”. The first is used only for engines using gasoline, and the second for diesel engines and agricultural machinery. Indicators are divided into 9 types with increasing quality level.

The best lubricants for gasoline are labeled SM or SN. They are repurposed for good performance in high speed engines, with reduced burnout, which reduces lubricant consumption and extends the life of mechanical parts.

Universal lubricants are also designed for gasoline and diesel engines, they are marked SF / CC, SG. Although suitable for any engine, it is still not the best option.

API class SN – parameter was introduced in 2010. This standard must comply with the current requirements of environmental services. It is compatible with modern exhaust gas purification systems and prolongs the performance of gasoline engines.

The API SM class has been introduced since 2004, and is common among Russian motorists.

The API SJ class is used for cars with a year of manufacture from 1996. It does not meet environmental standards, but is in demand.

Energy-saving are EU-labeled and provide fuel savings of at least 1-2%.

ILSAC classification

It was introduced by the International Committee for Standardization. There are three distinctions for lubricants – GF-1, GF-2, GF-3 for passenger car engines using gasoline as fuel.

Class GF-3 is designed for new generation vehicles, and includes energy saving features.

Oil for diesel

for diesel

A diesel engine is a heat-stressed device operating on inexpensive hot mixtures. It is distinguished by a high rate of mixture formation and burnout.

Thus, it is almost impossible to achieve complete combustion of fuel from diesel engines; there is an increased level of soot and soot in the exhaust gases.

Diesel automotive grease consists of viscosity modifiers and multi-component additives.

Motor lubricants up to CE class are considered obsolete.

CE – suitable for a diesel engine constantly working at severe loads

CF – for passenger cars

CF-4 – an improved level that replaced CE

CF-2 – designed for two-stroke engines

CG-4 – motor lubricant for diesel engines of heavy vehicles made in America

CJ-4 is a class designed for high-speed four-stroke engines.

ACEA diesel engine oil classification.

According to this division, there are 4 categories of motors: A1 / B1, A3 / B3, A3 / B4, A5 / B5.

Compared to gasoline, diesel fuel contains much more sulfur. Oxides of this substance are formed when diesel fuel burns inside. These substances pass into the composition of the fuel quickly while the internal combustion engine is in operation.

Ignition of diesel fuel requires strong compression. Gases break into the crankcase from the combustion chamber more actively than in similar systems of a different type. Because of this, the oil continues to oxidize just as quickly.

There are few requirements for the quality of diesel fuel:

  • Resistance to oxidative processes.
  • The ability to clean parts.

Gasoline and diesel are “prepared” on the same basis. The difference is in the additive packages that are used in the composition. The composition of additives differs depending on which machine they were originally created for.

Diesel oils are made up of specific binder and detergent additives. This shortens the fluid change interval.

The rapid deposition of soot and sulfur oxides leads to the fact that diesel oil must be changed more often than analogues on a different basis.

Manufacturers add additives that neutralize oxidation products to the maximum.

Gasoline has a lower composition and does not contain as much sulfur as diesel. The main thing is to take into account that the motors operate at high speeds, the number of which is 7-8 thousand per minute. At the same time, high-quality diesel engines operate at a maximum of 4-4.5 thousand revolutions. The working revolutions of these types of fuel also differ from each other.

Due to these features, gasoline oils are not so susceptible to oxidation. It is important that the composition lubricates the rubbing parts inside the mechanism and reliably protects it. Including, at revolutions over 4-5 thousand.

Developers for each individual mechanism create an individual package of additives.

Oil for turbine engines

Turbocharging operates at high temperatures, unlike a conventional engine. Lubricants must retain their properties at high temperatures. Special oils are produced for engines with a turbine.

If the first letter of the marking is S, the oil is poured into gasoline units. C is for diesel applications. If two letters are indicated through a fraction, this is a universal liquid that is poured into cars, regardless of the type of engine.

A separate quality classification has been developed for diesel units. It is written in the last few letters of the marking.

  • CA and CB. Not available for sale.
  • CF-2 and CD-11 are suitable for two-stroke diesel units.
  • CD – indicates a high level of boost, works in any difficult operating conditions, including engines where the sulfur content exceeds average standards.
  • CC – for naturally aspirated diesel engines. Equipped with moderate boost.

The division into groups is as follows:

  1. E3-96 – extra class fluids for trucks with a turbocharged engine.
  2. The E2-96 is an upgraded version of the E1-96 for high boost trucks.
  3. B3-96 – for passenger cars with a turbocharger.
  4. B2-96 – passenger cars.
  5. B – poured into passenger vehicles.

Oil for worn engines

Choosing oils for used engines

Buyers are trying to save on lubricants by having used cars. But users miss the fact that over time, the requirements for the operation of oils do not decrease. On the contrary, they become stiffer and higher already after the first 3-4 years of driving. Not even very active.

When the cylinder-piston group wears out, the compression decreases. Because of this, the useful power of the engine decreases, and fuel consumption increases. Synthetic oils withstand elevated temperatures and environmental influences better than mineral oils. They have lower volatility.

The sealing of the combustion chamber is more efficient. A static protective film is formed. Due to this, engine wear does not affect performance as much.

Wear causes more combustion products to enter the oil. It oxidizes so actively that even the additives in the composition lose their effectiveness.

Synthetic is an excellent choice for those who are interested in the problem of cold starting. At low temperatures, synthetics show a lower viscosity index. Shaft rotation meets minimal resistance.

Manufacturers of automotive lubricants have agreed to adopt the API and ACEA classifications, where only basic requirements for lubricants and additives are formulated. The car manufacturers have the right to put forward additional requirements for oils, they are described in the manufacturer’s specifications.

Car engines of different brands do not work the same way. Lubricant requirements may vary. Therefore, oils are carefully tested by car manufacturers.

After research, mechanics either find the right class of lubricants, or draw up their own specifications, which clearly indicate the brands and types of oils that are suitable for use in a given car. These specifications are necessarily described in the instructions.

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