Each person at least once in his life wondered: “what quality of the liquid used is used in cooking.” She, being supplied to homes with the help of a water supply system, is processed, but this is not enough for an acceptable level of softness.
Therefore, it is better to use professional filter elements, softeners. The market offers a wide range of varieties of such softening devices.
How water softeners work
The liquid softener is a small cylindrical device. Inside there is a filter element, it occupies 60 percent of the device. Above the main part is an automatic control valve that controls the operation of the device.
Inside the column there is a riser pipe with a distributor mesh at the bottom and an upper distributor, which is attached to the control valve.
Grids distributors serve to prevent washing out during filter regeneration and the ingress of the filter load into the control valve and pipelines.
The liquid flowing through the softener enters through the tank, where the ion exchange resin is located, in which calcium ions are replaced by sodium ions. Then, as a result of this process, soft water is obtained, it enters the water supply system and can later be used both for domestic and technical purposes.
The choice of softening method is influenced by the depth of softening and the quality required from the filter. Filters are such as distillation, heat treatment based on heating and freezing.
With the physical method of softening, the use of chemicals is strictly prohibited.
This filter is suitable for the cleaning required for cooking. Reverse osmosis is a certified and proven membrane purification method. The essence of his work is that there is a disposal of salt due to pressure.
Filtration with this purification method is of very high quality and such water is used in many industries, even in pharmacology. Cleaning of the required degree can be obtained at low pressure with the replacement of the membrane. To obtain drinking water, household jugs are used, but they are inefficient.
Characteristics of water softeners
Hard water greatly affects things that fade due to poor washing quality. You have to increase the consumption of washing powder when washing clothes. In addition, people who use hard water for cooking suffer, thereby slowly killing their bodies.
Depending on the combination of physical and chemical properties, the permissible norms of magnesium and calcium salts are exceeded. The parameter is divided into temporary and permanent stiffness.
Using hardness reduction equipment, it is possible to clean the entire system on any scale, or just use water softeners. Comparing the characteristics of liquid impurities, the degree of hardness is taken into account.
Thanks to the use of equipment, the level of rigidity decreases, the operation of sanitary equipment increases, the accumulation of solid deposits in pipes decreases, the equipment works with a high efficiency.
The main characteristic is performance. Based on this parameter, they choose a filter that filters the liquid at home or at work, monitors the quality parameters and determines the pricing policy of the product.
The next indicators associated with the main parameter are the volume of resin and the hardness limit, which allows the use of the device if there is an excess of several times.
The amount of liquid that is processed by the device between individual regenerations is considered to be the regeneration period of the softener, which depends on the volume of resin. Iron reduction occurs through the use of standard cation exchange resins. Minimization of the participation of the human factor in the process of operation of the device.
Energy consumption, dimensions and salt consumption directly depend on the performance of the system.
The buyer is offered several varieties of softeners operating on different principles.
Types of water softeners
There are several types of liquid softeners:
- ion exchange;
- filters with maximum softening;
- filters with a powerful softening method;
Electromagnetic softeners differ from other models and are gradually losing popularity, as they are more suitable not for home use, but for household use. Soft water formed by this method protects appliances from scale, keeps household appliances working, but it is undesirable to use such water as drinking water, or you need to use a filter.
More often, such softeners are used in boiler rooms, in heating systems. These devices are easy to use and install. These filters do not allow the formation of scale and have the longest shelf life. Cons of the device – the device needs a significant amount of electrical energy.
Ion exchange principle.
The mode of operation of such devices is based on chemical reactions, based on a gel-like cleaning resin, which contains an increased amount of sodium and changes places with hardness ions during filtration. Softness with this principle is higher, but care must be taken when leaving and changing the resin more often.
Ultrafiltration is a membrane process that occupies an intermediate position between microfiltration and nanofiltration. Ultrafiltration membranes have pore sizes from 0.05 µm to 10 nm.
The principle of an ultrafiltration softener is the separation of macromolecular substances from water. Filtration is carried out very carefully, as a similar method is used when cleaning heavily contaminated liquids such as diesel fuel and oil.
The principle is expensive and devoid of disadvantages. The price affects the quality of the product, so for a wealthy consumer, such a softener is the best option. The water is soft in taste, and after treatment it is deprived of chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, harmful bacteria.
Filter with maximum softening.
Theoretically, the correct device is one that can ensure the removal of most harmful impurities. Here, a membrane with small pore sizes is used, which allows only water molecules and the same formations to pass through. Molecules that affect stiffness do not pass through the barrier and are washed into the drain.
The liquid consumption during such cleaning is five times higher than with standard consumption. The volume of liquid processed per day will not be sufficient for the operation of a large number of household devices.
Systems are very sensitive to temperature changes, water pressure, chlorine and other contaminants. To increase productivity, you need to change clogged cartridges as often as possible.
If we consider this from an economic point of view, it turns out that such a filter is too expensive in everyday life. It is more expedient to use the filter element in enterprises for the necessary production processes.
Such a device saturates the liquid passed through it with dissolved chemical compounds. These substances include sodium chloride, phosphates. Enveloping the salt crystals of the liquid, they reduce the chances of scale formation. Such a device has many advantages, but we must not forget about the narrow specialization of its application.
For control, special devices are mounted in the water pipe that determine the dosage. The price of the material from which the filter and filler is made is low. Dissolved compounds are sources of contamination and their quality cannot be verified.
During the operation of backfilling polyphosphates, their level is monitored and replenished when the level decreases. The consumer is not always able to connect the device correctly. In this case, the help of professionals in this field will lead to additional expensive expenses.
A powerful way to soften.
The higher the performance of the device, the more difficult the device to maintain. The likelihood that some part or assembly will break is too high. Such devices are equipped with a control and monitoring unit as standard.
The device is equipped with a tank for regeneration solution, a bypass pipe system, a continuous supply of the required amount of liquid with an additional tank, which guarantees a long service life. Installation and reconfiguration are carried out by professional installers.
Standard parts are strong and durable, with a guarantee from the manufacturer. Over time, the money invested earlier will be saved, and the state of health will improve.
High performance can be achieved using a device in which a magnetic field is created by a special generator. The power is enough to process a large amount of liquid under different pressures. The chemical composition of the liquid does not change and remains pure.
Installation of such a device is within the power of every person. The generator does not take up much space and can be located on any section of the pipe. In operation it is simple and reliable. The principle of operation of a magnetic softener is to convert calcium and magnesium compounds, which acquire a new form that is safe for technical support.
Removal of hardness salts does not occur and the resulting lime scale is removed. Softeners of this type are installed on water pipes, in cooling systems, at pumping stations, in front of boilers, household appliances and columns.
The main advantage is independence from electrical energy, which gives it an advantage over other methods. The correct magnetic softener is a device in which the main element is located in close proximity to water.
It is not advised to mount equipment without the help of professionals. A common type of device is a cylinder in a hermetic case.
The main difference between a household softener and an industrial softener is the dimensions. This device guarantees a continuous supply of fluid and protects against adverse environmental influences.
The use of such devices at home will provide satisfaction from their use. On an industrial scale, softeners play an important role.
Cleaning affects the production of products, the health of employees, and ultimately the consumers of these goods. Having studied the recommendations and tips, you can safely purchase a softener that fits the selected characteristics and will serve your conscience.
As discussed earlier, the softener saves equipment from wear and tear, preserves human health. But excessive softening of water is harmful to humans, since in minimal quantities those substances that enter the body along with water and are removed during softening are necessary for humans.
These are natural vitamins, some of which are involved in the natural reactions of the body and their absence will lead to problems. Soft water is not easy to get used to, when washing hands there is a feeling that the soap is not washed off, this creates some discomfort.
Moderate softening has a positive effect on human health, energy and beauty, but before buying, you need to determine the water softening coefficient, since too soft water can adversely affect human health.
Then, having found a proportional relationship between softness and the presence of natural elements, the consumer will drink the right water.
If the softener works intermittently or does not soften the water enough, do the following:
- Disassemble fluid supply elements and clean.
- Close the bypass valve if it is open.
- If the fluid softens unevenly with a controller, adjust the regeneration cycle time to account for the water flow.
- Since only the salt supply needs to be replenished manually, and the rest of the elements are replenished automatically, check the salt supply and add or remove so that the salt covers the appropriate backfill.
If these methods did not help, or something cannot be done manually, contact the professionals.
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