Vacuum cleaner – the unit is similar in principle to a turbine, designed to clean rooms from pollution, dust by suction.
The classic version – an engine with a through passage of air flow on one side sucks in, on the other hand it exhausts air, filters are installed in front of the incoming air flow that trap debris (dust bag, turbo containers).
Types and types of vacuum cleaners
By scope and functionality, vacuum cleaners are of several types: classic, vertical, automotive, robotic, built-in.
Classic – It is used for premises of various types and purposes.
Available in three versions:
- Balloon – used for dry and moist cleaning, equipped with three types of dust collectors – a bag, a container and a water filter.
- vertical – a device without a classic case, structurally made in the form of a dust collector combined with a suction pipe. Upright vacuum cleaners have an attractive design, ergonomic body, low weight and do not take up much space.
- Combined – combine the best qualities of balloon and vertical types. They are used for cleaning large areas with even surfaces (hotels, concert halls, etc.).
robotic – are intended for cleaning in automatic mode without human participation – the operation of the unit is controlled based on built-in sensors. Are completed with the accumulator and a dust collector – the container.
Presented in a round body with a diameter of 30-40 centimeters and a height of 10 cm, which ensures thorough cleaning of premises in hard-to-reach places.
The standard package includes a charger and the necessary set of nozzles.
Automotive – devices in a compact body with low suction power. Used for dry cleaning: cleaning car interiors and upholstered cabinet furniture.
They are powered by a battery, a cigarette lighter in a car and a standard household network. Complete with a standard set of nozzles and a case for secure storage.
Embedded. In different rooms of the housing there are pneumo-sockets, to which a dust suction hose is connected. Pneumatic inlets perform the function of an air conductor, and the unit itself is located in a separate room (loggia, pantry). The design is practical, low noise and harmless, since all air purification processes take place in non-residential premises.
All devices are divided into two categories: for dry (classic) and wet cleaning (washing). Some models are equipped with a built-in steam generator for cleaning surfaces and products with steam.
For dry cleaning: the incoming air with dust and debris is sucked through the pipe and filtered. The purified air goes into the room, and the collected dust accumulates in a special dust collector.
Suitable for use in urban apartments, homes, small offices and shops. Such units are vertical, balloon, built-in and robotic.
For wet cleaning large areas and open areas, washing units are used. They allow you to effectively clean the rooms and humidify the air. The complex of works is carried out both with the use of mild detergents and without them.
Units of this type allow you to wash various surfaces, clean furniture, windows, tiles and sanitary ware.
It is not recommended to use detergents for cleaning carpets with natural pile, carpet on a foam base, furniture and decorative elements that are not resistant to moisture.
Robot vacuum cleaners with wet cleaning are not equipped with water containers for safety reasons, but work as floor polishers. Special wet cloths are attached to the bottom of the device, wiping the floor.
The key parameter that determines the efficiency and speed of the vacuum cleaner is its power. The indicator consists of two parameters – power consumption and suction power.
Power consumption is 1–2.8 kW. For models equipped with a built-in steam generator for wet cleaning, an additional characteristic is the power consumption of the boiler and the operating pressure of steam discharge.
Important! Consumers mistakenly choose vacuum cleaners based on their power consumption (indicated on the device case), although this particular characteristic does not affect the efficiency and quality of cleaning.
Therefore, it is recommended to take into account the suction power, which differs from the consumption power, but is marked next to it on the back of the product – on the tag (1000/400), not on all models the suction power is indicated on the product tag, but only in the passport.
The performance characteristic, which is determined by the intensity of the air flow that the unit passes through itself. The average power is measured 5-6 minutes after the start of work.
The maximum suction power determines the speed and strength of dust suction in the first 3 minutes from the start of work. Usually it is 15-25% higher than the average power. The units of measurement for this quantity are aerowatts.
To choose an economical and efficient model, it is worth considering the correct ratio of two indicators – power consumption and suction.
Manufacturers offer the following suction power indicators, taking into account the main tasks (aeroW):
- 355 – dry cleaning of surfaces: laminate, linoleum, parquet, tiles;
- 405 – high-quality cleaning using turbo brushes and nozzles;
- 455 – dry cleaning of floor coverings made of wool and artificial materials with short and long pile;
- 555 – moisturizing cleaning of carpets and paths;
- 655 – complex dry and moisturizing cleaning of upholstered cabinet furniture;
- 805 – cleaning of residential and office premises.
Suction power is reduced in models equipped with removable dust bags due to their filling during the cleaning process. In devices equipped with separatory water filters, there is no such drawback, and the power does not change. At the same time, the rate of operation of the separator filter is affected by the intensity of dust suction and its mixing with water.
Power control on handle and body
In modern devices, there are two types of power mode control: on the handle of the suction hose and on the body.
In budget models, there is no power mode selection function; they only have an on / off button for the device.
When choosing a unit with a control panel located on the top of the case, you should pay attention to the convenience of activating the desired mode with your foot (foot control).
This eliminates the need to crouch and switch keys manually every time you change location.
A more practical option is handle control. It is of three types:
- Wired. This type provides for the presence of conductive wires that are laid inside the hose and connect the body and handle. This is an affordable and inexpensive device management option;
- infrared. This option provides for control based on infrared radiation sensors according to the principle of remote control. Powered by compact batteries, does not equip with conductive wires;
- Radio controlled. This is an innovative development that is used in expensive models.
Vacuum cleaner control is of mechanical and electronic type.
- The mechanical type is implemented by standard keys and operating power switches.
- The electronic type is represented by a single key, when pressed, the power automatically increases.
In the modern household appliances market, compact models are presented, the weight of which ranges from 600 g to 4 kg. Full-sized devices weigh from 4 to 6 kg, and bulky devices with capacious dust collectors – from 7 to 19 kg.
Vertical devices are lighter, their weight does not exceed 4-5 kg, automobile – up to 3 kg, washing – up to 10 kg, built-in – weigh up to 19 kg, excluding the weight of accessories.
The noise level depends on the design features of the case and the operating power of the built-in fans. The unit of measurement is dB.
The average noise level is between 70 and 80 dB. In general, this figure ranges from 5 to 94 dB. Permissible values for a person – 70 dB. Accordingly, the lower this indicator, the better.
The noisiest models are appliances equipped with dust collectors (bags and containers).
Complete set of vacuum cleaners
Dust collector type
Modern units are designed for dry and wet cleaning, equipped with different types of dust collector.
Bag. The main advantage is ease of use and replacement. The filled bag is easily removed from the case, opened and cleaned of dust and debris.
In vacuum cleaners, bags are paper (replaceable) and fabric (reusable). If the first version of the dust collector is immediately thrown away after filling, then the second one requires frequent cleaning and washing.
Paper bags are more hygienic, although they are not able to hold fine dust and debris. Some manufacturers offer combined disposable bags made from non-woven material.
Container. The cyclone type plastic dust collector is practical and efficient as it makes it easy to remove accumulated dust and debris. The principle of operation is based on the formation of a cyclic air flow, which draws in dust and debris and knocks them into a separate briquette.
The plastic container can be washed after each use.
The disadvantage is the high noise level. Advantage – when filling the dust collector, the traction power of the device does not decrease.
Water filter container. It is a special container filled with water, which contributes to the settling and extinguishing of dust during the cleaning process. Additionally, it purifies the air. After cleaning, the filter must be thoroughly washed and dried.
The advantage of such a dust collector is air humidification during cleaning. The disadvantages include: impressive weight and frequent cleaning.
Dust container volume
The capacity of different types of dust collectors depends on the model of devices and the manufacturer and ranges from 100 mg. up to 25 liters. Large dust containers require less cleaning. At the same time, the rapid filling of the dust collector leads to an immediate decrease in the working draft.
To determine the degree of filling of the dust collector, a special indicator is provided on the instrument case. It is intended to signal that the dust collector needs to be cleaned.
Suction pipe and its parking
Modern models are equipped with the following types of suction pipe: telescopic, composite, solid.
Composite type pipe consists of several working parts with the same diameter. Such a pipe requires pre-assembly. Storage is carried out in disassembled form. It is less convenient and functional compared to the telescopic counterpart.
telescopic (sliding) pipe consists of two parts of different diameters. In the assembled state, one part of the pipe of a smaller diameter is located inside another part of a larger diameter. The length of the pipe changes as desired and is fixed automatically.
One piece pipe has a fixed length and is rare.
The suction pipe is made of metal, aluminum and plastic.
Products made of steel and aluminum are durable and practical, plastic products are lighter in weight and cheaper.
For the convenience and safety of storing the suction pipe, special parking slots are provided in the vacuum cleaner housings, located:
- On the sides,
- on the back of the case,
- on the bottom.
Vertical parking allows you to fix the suction pipe and store the device in an upright position.
The versatility of any model depends on the number of nozzles in the kit.
The standard package for dry cleaning includes:
- Special nozzle for shelf and carpet cleaning;
- Universal nozzle with adjustable bristles. Used in floor/carpet mode;
- Crevice brush.
Additionally, the units are equipped with a non-standard set of nozzles:
- Rotating turbo brush for removing animal hair, human hair and difficult dirt;
- Brush for cleaning upholstered furniture and clothes. It has small thick bristles and plush inserts that cope with cleaning dust on upholstered furniture and clothes.
- Brush for cleaning cabinet furniture with a short pile.
- Brush for cleaning delicate floor coverings – laminate, parquet, tiles. Narrow nozzle with long bristles.
Turbo brush and electric brush
Turbo nozzle is a special roller equipped with short bristles around the perimeter.
turbo brush used to clean various surfaces from complex contaminants:
- animal fur,
- human hair,
Requires regular cleaning in order to avoid a decrease in rotational speed and a deterioration in the quality of cleaning.
The nozzle comes with a mechanical or electric drive.
The turbo brush is equipped with a mechanical drive, the functionality of which depends on the power of the vacuum cleaner, so it works like any other nozzle after being installed on the suction pipe.
Electric brush it is completed with an electric drive, which is connected to the household network autonomously from the vacuum cleaner. The electric brush does not reduce the suction power, works even when the dust container is full and creates less noise compared to the turbo brush.
Dust collectors are the first and main filters for cleaning the air from dust and dirt, but there are other stages of filtration. They are presented in the form of motor-type filters and fine filters.
Designed to protect equipment from overheating and debris. Such a filter is replaceable and permanent.
The replacement version is replaced along with the paper dust bag. The permanent filter must be cleaned periodically in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. The motor filter is not used for additional air purification in the room.
Fine filters and filtration stages
The system is represented by microfilters, HEPA and S filters. This is the only category of filters that is intended for additional purification from allergens and microorganisms, and is responsible for the purity and quality of the outgoing air.
There are three types of fine filters:
- An electrostatic type microfilter that is able to trap microparticles of dust and debris, purifying the air up to 98%;
- S – filters are used for complete cleaning of dirt and dust by 99%. Their shelf life is from 12 to 36 months;
- HEPA filters highly efficiently and safely purify the air from dust particles and guarantee 4-stage protection. Represented by interchangeable and reusable models. Service life from 1 to 5 years. Technique with such filters is used by people suffering from allergic and asthmatic diseases.
HEPA filters are capable of retaining microparticles as small as 0.07 microns, making them highly efficient.
There are H filters of the following modification:
- H10 traps up to 86% of particles,
- H11 -94%,
- H12 – 99%,
- H13 – 99.95%.
They are made of durable wear-resistant material with a porous structure based on fiberglass.
In different vacuum cleaners, the filtration systems have a different number of stages. 1-12 steps are provided. The most popular is the 4-stage system, but there are models with 8-stage filtration. In budget products, an air purification system is provided for 1-2 steps.
Functions of vacuum cleaners
Automatic dust pressing
Devices with the function of collecting and pressing dust in automatic mode allow you to collect garbage, dust, dirt, wool and hair into separate briquettes.
There are two options for pressing – automatic and manual. The machines perform this process on their own. They are equipped with a built-in device that presses the dust against the inner walls of the container. This reduces the volume of collected dust and simplifies the process of cleaning the dust container.
The manual pressing function is only activated when the appliance is running. In this case, the briquettes are obtained with a larger volume and density and allow you to hold more dust.
There are three types of power supply for vacuum cleaners:
- from a standard electrical network,
- cigarette lighter in car
Traditional appliances are connected to the household network, they have high power and cleaning speed.
Automotive devices are powered by a cigarette lighter or have built-in batteries.
In the case of battery operation, the cleaning time is limited to 20-30 minutes, and the suction intensity decreases already at 8-10 minutes.
When using the vacuum cleaner from the cigarette lighter, you should remember that it greatly discharges the battery, i.e. after 30-40 minutes of cleaning, there is a possibility that the car will not start.
Robotic models – from a battery built into the body, which is charged from the mains as needed.
Nozzle storage space
In some models, special protective compartments are provided in the case, which are used to store additional attachments.
Such compartments are protected by lids to avoid dust ingress during storage. Some devices additionally have storage compartments on the hose.
Automatic cord rewind function, its length
The vacuum cleaners have an automatic cord winding function using a built-in drum mechanism that winds the cord in the back of the case.
The device has special buttons for selecting the drum rotation mode – automatic or semi-automatic, which are located on the top of the case.
Additionally, when unwinding the cord to the desired mark, its blocking is provided, which allows you to choose the length necessary for comfortable cleaning.
The average length of the electric cord for the convenience of using the vacuum cleaner in various rooms without the use of additional extension cords is 10 meters. The minimum length is 1 meter, the maximum is 15 meters.
Cigarette lighter-powered car vacuum cleaners have a cord length limit of 7 meters, although there are some models with cords up to 15 meters in length.
A functional accessory that is included with some vacuum cleaners weighing up to 4 kg. It is made of soft elastic fabric, securely attached to the body of the device.
The belt allows you to clean in hard-to-reach places – wash windows, clean carpets on the wall, remove dust from cornices, ceiling surfaces and cabinets. There is no need to bend over to change operating modes.
Liquid collection function
There are models of vacuum cleaners that have a special function for collecting liquid.
It is used if it is necessary to collect spilled liquid on any type of surface – floors, furniture, car seats. This function is equipped with automotive and washing devices.
Power tool socket
Some models of devices are equipped with an additional socket for powering an additional electric tool.
It allows you to use the vacuum cleaner in conjunction with an electric brush or with construction and repair tools. Dust, shavings and debris that have formed during operation fall directly into the dust collector.
Robot vacuum cleaners
Type of battery included, its capacity
Robotic vacuum cleaners are powered exclusively by a built-in energy source – a battery. Modern models use several battery options – Li-Ion, NiMH and Ni-Cd.
- Li-Ion (lithium-ion) – charge at any time, without waiting for a full discharge.
- Ni-Cd (nickel-cadmium) – recharged only after complete discharge. This prevents the charge capacity from being reduced.
- NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydrite) – require a long charge and have a lower capacity.
For ease of use, it is recommended to choose devices with Li-Ion batteries, although the service life of such batteries is less than that of Ni-Cd counterparts.
Robot vacuum cleaners are equipped with batteries with a capacity of 160 to 6900 mAh. A high rate directly affects the duration of work and the speed of recharging.
The maximum battery life is 430 minutes.
The duration of a battery charge determines its type and capacity. On average, it is 10 hours, sometimes up to 3 days.
Connecting to a charger
Charging of robotic household appliances is carried out automatically through a special charger – the base.
Budget models approach the base, but their connection to the power supply is carried out manually by the user. In elite models, this function is automated – the device finds recharging and connects to it automatically.
The power source cannot be forced by third-party interior items and furniture.
Sensors, their number
There are three types of sensors: infrared, optical and ultrasonic. Some models have all types of sensors.
- Infrared sensors are located in the lower part of the body, so they prevent falling from the steps of the stairs.
- Optical-type sensors provide easy orientation in the space of the premises, allow you to avoid obstacles and create a path for cleaning.
- Ultrasonic sensors pick up vibrational vibrations that allow you to determine the location of furniture, doorways, steps, etc.
In modern models, from 3 to 40 sensors are provided.
Robotic and built-in vacuum cleaners are equipped with LSD displays. They display operating modes and cleaning duration, remaining time to completion, current time, battery level and service messages for users.
Also, the display shows the detected faults, which are signaled by special icons. For example: the turbo brush or side brush needs to be cleaned, the battery is low, the dust bin is missing, or there are tufts of hair stuck on the spinning wheel, all of which are immediately shown on the display.
In robot vacuum cleaners, the display is located on the body, in built-in ones it is placed in a separate block on the wall.
Built-in clock, timer and programming
Clock and timer allow you to set the exact start and end time of cleaning in the premises. The current time is displayed on the LCD display.
This feature simplifies cleaning and automates it, eliminating user control.
Daily programming allows you to set the desired cleaning program, its start time and duration, taking into account the days of the week. For example: on weekdays, program cleaning for a minimum time, on weekends – a complex long one. This function is provided only in robotic products.
The cleaning time calculation allows you to set the desired time that is required for cleaning. And the joint use of such a function with a built-in timer allows you to set the time period after which the device must shut down.
Robotic vacuum cleaners are equipped with infrared remote control devices – remote controls. They allow you to freely control equipment at a distance of up to 20 meters.
The choice of the desired program or other options is carried out by pressing the operating keys on the body of the remote control. Powered by AA batteries.
When using the remote control, there should be no obstacles or third-party objects between the remote control and the vacuum cleaner that could interfere with the signal.
This nozzle is equipped with robotic vacuum cleaners. It allows you to effectively remove dust, dirt and debris in hard-to-reach places (under a bed or sofa, in corners, behind furniture, along baseboards). The advantage of the side brush is ease of operation and availability of replacement.
Waste bin in the charger
The trash bin in the charger is only available on robotic models.
In this case, the vacuum cleaner approaches the charger (base) and automatically dumps all debris, dust and dirt collected after cleaning the premises into a special compartment.
The function is not popular due to the massiveness of the dust collector, as well as due to inaccurate docking of robots with the base, which leads to debris spillage.
Aromatization and disinfection with UV lamp
A popular option in multifunctional devices is the aromatization of indoor air.
Vacuuming is accompanied by noise and the appearance of unpleasant odors from heated dust and an electric motor. A similar function provides for the aromatization of air with the help of special aromatic liquids and granules placed in a dust collector. Flavors are presented by a various palette of smells.
The devices – robots provide another useful function – disinfection of the premises with a UV lamp.
It allows you to get rid of unpleasant odors, harmful microorganisms and mold – the main sources of infections and allergic reactions.
Robot vacuum cleaners are equipped with a built-in UV lamp, and for traditional appliances there is a special nozzle. The nozzle is equipped with a vibrating mechanism and an ultraviolet lamp. With their simultaneous use, you can thoroughly clean and disinfect any type of surface.
The vibrating base is used to effectively knock out dust, debris and microorganisms from short and long pile. The nozzle provides an autonomous type of power supply from AAA batteries placed in the body of the device.
Movement function – along the walls, in a zigzag and in a spiral
Modern robot models are equipped with many useful and practical motion functions – in a zigzag, spiral and along the perimeter of walls.
Movement along the walls involves moving the device around the perimeter of the room. A similar program cleans floor skirting boards, cleans cracks, corners and thresholds from dust, dirt and debris.
The zigzag and spiral function is useful for high-quality cleaning of small rooms and cleaning floors made of artificial and natural materials, as well as avoiding untreated surface areas.
The number of operating modes directly depends on the model and design features. The robot is programmed to perform straight, zigzag, spiral and chaotic movements. The number of such programs ranges from 2 to 60.
Building a map
Some models provide the function of building a map of the room in which the device operates.
The navigation video camera built into the vacuum cleaner takes pictures of the ceiling during operation. If obstacles are detected, the camera captures their location, and data about the object is entered into the robot’s memory.
During subsequent cleanings, the device moves along the existing map and avoids obstacles, which allows the vacuum cleaner to “not get lost”, complete the tasks and successfully return to the base.
Simple and budget models do not have this function and move in a chaotic manner. When the charge is low, the device finishes cleaning and gives a sound signal about the need for recharging.
Quick and local cleaning programs
Robotic vacuum cleaners have two additional programs – quick cleaning and local cleaning.
Quick cleaning is used when it is necessary to maintain cleanliness in the premises throughout the day. It has a short duration.
Local cleaning is suitable for complex cleaning of a heavily polluted area of 1 sq.m. This program is suitable for cleaning the entrance mat, marks on the carpet, cleaning loose bulk materials, etc.
Maximum and minimum cleaning time
The maximum duration of the cleaning time, depending on the selected program, is from 45 to 540 minutes. The device works until it receives a basic signal about the end of the program or until the surface to be treated is clean. In addition, the device is triggered by automatic shutdown in the event of obstacles that it has not overcome.
The minimum duration is between 3 and 180 minutes. It is used in the case of rapid cleanliness in a short period of time.
Cleaning time limit
Models of robotic or automatic vacuum cleaners are equipped with programs with an open cleaning duration, when the room is cleaned in cycles. In this case, after cleaning is completed, the vacuum cleaner is connected to the charger, charged and starts cleaning again.
To avoid this situation, the time limit function is used, which will stop the device at a given moment.
Cleaning area limiter
The cleaning zone limiter is intended to indicate a place that requires additional cleaning or to protect dangerous areas in the room (steps, stairs, thresholds, etc.).
The limiter is represented by two types: an infrared emitter and a magnetic tape. In the first case, the projection of the beam is carried out in the direction of movement of the vacuum cleaner, in the second case, the limiter is applied to the floor.
Functions for sounding an alarm in case of malfunctions – jamming and low battery, are provided only in robotic products. For example: the device is stuck in the aisle, between the furniture and the wall or under the bed, the user is beeping.
When the battery is low, the device also gives a signal about the need for recharging. Some models search for the charger on their own, so they do not emit a beep.
How to choose a vacuum cleaner
When choosing a vacuum cleaner, regardless of the brand and modification, you should proceed from financial capabilities, personal preferences and goals.
So, in addition to cost, you need to consider:
- suction power,
- set of basic functions,
- dust collector type
- filtration systems,
- noise level,
- case weight and dimensions,
- cord length,
- working nozzles,
- storage compactness.
A reliable device from a leading manufacturer is distinguished by high-quality assembly and safe operation.
Proven manufacturers offer ergonomic and practical models that simplify the cleaning process due to their functionality.
Silent wheels, storage compartments for attachments, automatic cord rewind and a place to park the suction tube ensure convenient operation of the device.
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