Flashlights are used for different purposes: in everyday life, construction, travel. Their main characteristics are impact resistance, moisture resistance, luminous range and directivity of the light beam.

Principle of operation

Principle of operation

LED flashlights are easy to turn on and carry by hand. They shine quite brightly, have high power. The case is made of plastic or metal.

Plastic flashlights are light, metal ones are not afraid of moisture, dust and shock. Models are equipped with a wrist strap, they can focus the rays, lengthening or bringing them closer.

Working principle of LED lamp:

  • The LED consists of semiconductors that convert the incoming current into light radiation. The current is directed only from the anode to the cathode, a p-n junction is created.

Principle of operation

Electrons meet holes and lose their energy, from which photons are formed. It is necessary that several semiconductors with different types of conductivity interact with each other.

  • A hole is a place in the crystal lattice, after exposure to which electrons move from the upper atomic shells, and a positive charge is formed.

Electrons move towards a positive charge, and holes move towards a negative one. The free space between them is filled with electrons.

  • Electrons and holes through diffusion penetrate through the layer formed in the semiconductor between areas of different conductivity. This is necessary for the concentration of the same number of electrons and holes on both sides of the layer.

In this case, the stress on the intermediate layer increases. After the recombination of holes and electrons, the barrier in the pn junction decreases, and light energy is released.

Types of lanterns

Types of flashlights

  • Manual full size flashlights are used in cases where high power of the device is important for a long time, and its dimensions do not matter. Models are designed for constant holding in hands, easy to transport.
  • Handheld compact lights are used to light the way or look for small objects in the dark. These devices will come in handy in unexpected situations, so they must be portable and convenient for everyday wear.
  • Lanterns on the forehead allow you to work with your hands in places with poor lighting. Lighting range – up to 30 meters. Often such devices are equipped with the function of selecting the best mode in a certain place at a certain time.

Types of flashlights

Headlamps are used by hunters, tourists, motorists, cyclists, builders, doctors.

  • Tourist lanterns – resistant to mechanical stress, moisture resistant, practical and compact devices. Both batteries and accumulators are used as a power source for most models.

These are compact models with high light intensity.

  • Dynamo lights – portable devices that work without batteries; to put the mechanism into action, you should rotate the charging handle for some time.

Such a device does not pollute the environment, it can be used to recharge the phone.

  • diving lights have high water resistance, the function of changing the color rendering of the luminous flux. They have a high brightness of light, allow you to illuminate objects that are located at long distances.

Types of flashlights

Most models are equipped with a mode switching function.

  • Laser lights – devices that are structurally close to search engines, equipped with a rugged housing. As a rule, such models operate at low temperatures, have a sealed and reliable metal alloy case.

Among the advantages of such devices: small dimensions, impact resistance, several batteries in the kit, the presence of a remote control panel.

  • Keychains – compact devices that are worn in a keychain. Used to perform simple tasks, their functionality and brightness are lower than those of hand-held devices.
  • Flashlights-shockers – not only a personal lamp, but also an effective means of self-defense. They painfully shock even through thick down jackets.

They are characterized by durability, stable metal case, which is not subject to mechanical damage. The prices for these devices are high.

Tactical (barrel) flashlights

  • Tactical (barrel) flashlights – devices used in conjunction with weapon mounts. The main function is to illuminate the target in low light. Lighting range – within 50 meters.

Among the technical characteristics are a narrow glow angle, small dimensions and power of the device. The metal housing of the instruments provides thorough water protection. Additional features: remote control, mode switching.

  • search lights – devices used for carrying in hands, with high brightness and glow range. The devices have a large battery compartment. Lighting range – up to 250 meters.

search lights

Equipped with the function of changing the angle of illumination, switching modes, with an average power. The metal case is durable and waterproof.

By type of food are distinguished:

  • Flashlights that run on batteries. Recharged from the mains, the power source is a nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid or lithium-ion battery.
  • Battery powered flashlights. Such devices are lighter, do not require recharging the device.

Lantern characteristics


Among the characteristics of flashlights stand out:

  • dimensions;
  • brightness of the light flux;
  • light source power (LED models);
  • working hours;
  • number of operating modes;
  • resistance to external influences (moisture, frost resistance);
  • digital current stabilization;
  • availability of additional accessories.

Light flow (brightness of the LED flashlight) – a value that is measured in lumens.

Uniform diffused illumination with low brightness can be obtained in an LED flashlight with the same number of lumens, long-range flashlights provide narrow and bright beams.

The lighting range of flashlights is from 60 to 150 meters. Portable models can illuminate the space at a distance of 15 meters.

LED models:

  • conventional DIP LEDs,
  • SMD LEDs,
  • COB technologies,
  • projector LEDs,
  • RGB LEDs,
  • LED strips.


DIP LEDs consist of two metal legs, a clear plastic case with a small lens inside; the structures are easy to install and use, provide good protection from environmental influences, and practically do not radiate heat.

SMD LEDs are flat, without legs, their current is supplied to the terminals that are located on the back of the LED; have good indicators of brightness and light output.

COB LEDs provide fast light diffusion, spotlight LEDs are high power devices.

RGB-LEDs are equipped with a glow color control function. The LED strip has high brightness and energy efficiency.

The maximum operating time of the flashlight indicated as an average value and depends on the mode of operation and battery capacity. This time can be calculated in minutes, hours and days.

Flashlight body material:

  • aluminum,
  • plastic,
  • polymer.


Housings of aluminum fixtures are strong enough, have a cylindrical shape. Powder coating protects the metal from corrosion. Anodized lamps are not exposed to mechanical damage.

There are many polymer and plastic varieties of cases. Polymeric materials are elastic, not afraid of shock.

Lantern length, as a rule, does not exceed 84 cm. This indicator depends on the functionality of the device. Compact handheld models up to 15.5 cm long are used for domestic needs.

The weight of the lanterns is from 100 grams to 1 kilogram.



The kit may include:

  • lamp;
  • spare sealing rings;
  • lanyard;
  • company card for the model;
  • case;
  • factory packaging;
  • Charger;
  • warranty card;
  • user’s manual.



Accessories used include:

  • cases for accumulators;
  • fixtures for lanterns;
  • silicone grease for rubber surfaces;
  • diffusing caps, red filters for illumination;
  • additional buildings;
  • metal clips for fastening;
  • hand straps;
  • overlay on the button in the tail of the lantern.



Features of hand lamps:

  • high power devices;
  • are easily transported;
  • used in construction and at home;
  • portable and convenient for daily wear.

Headlamp Features:

  • good lighting range;
  • allow you to work in places with low light;
  • wide scope of use.

Headlamp features

Features of tourist lamps:

  • moisture resistance;
  • resistance to mechanical stress;
  • practical and mobile devices.

Features of dynamo lights:

  • portability and compactness;
  • run on batteries;
  • do not pollute the environment.

Features of diving lights

Features of diving lights:

  • good level of water resistance;
  • high level of light brightness;
  • equipped with a mode switch function.

Features of laser lights:

  • have a solid body;
  • work in low temperature conditions;
  • have small dimensions;
  • have high impact resistance.

Keychain Features

Keychain features:

  • compact devices;
  • used to perform simple tasks;
  • low technical characteristics.

Features of flashlights-shockers:

  • effective means of self-defense;
  • have a durable metal case;
  • are not exposed to mechanical damage;
  • such devices are expensive.

Features of tactical flashlights

Features of tactical flashlights:

  • illuminate the target in low light;
  • used in conjunction with a weapon mount;
  • have a high illumination range;
  • small dimensions.

Features of search lights:

  • have a high brightness of the glow;
  • have a good range of illumination;
  • with remote control function;
  • equipped with a mode switch function.

Advantages of types of lanterns


Pros of flashlights:

  • convenient and compact;
  • suitable for individual use;
  • easy to transport;
  • have high power.

Benefits of headlamps:

  • convenient and practical;
  • allow you to free your hands;
  • you can choose the appropriate mode of operation;
  • wide range of uses.

Advantages of tourist lamps

Advantages of tourist lamps:

  • equipped with a mode switching function;
  • resistance to mechanical stress;
  • moisture resistant;
  • practical and compact devices;
  • have a high radiation intensity.

Advantages of dynamo flashlights:

  • work without batteries;
  • do not pollute the environment;
  • used in places with no natural light.

Advantages of dynamo lights

Advantages of diving lights:

  • high impermeability;
  • function of changing the color rendering of the light flux;
  • good illumination at long distances.

Advantages of laser lamps:

  • equipped with a solid structure;
  • frost-resistant models;
  • small dimensions;
  • high impact resistance.

Keychain Benefits

Benefits of keychains:

  • compact and easy to use devices;
  • lungs.

Pros of flashlight-shocker:

  • used for self-defense;
  • have a solid body;
  • not subject to mechanical damage.

Pros of a flashlight

Advantages of tactical flashlights:

  • target illumination in low light;
  • high range of illumination;
  • good power devices;
  • remote control function.

Pros of search lights:

  • high brightness;
  • good range of illumination;
  • the presence of the function of changing the angle of illumination;
  • switching modes.

Cons types of lanterns


Cons of hand-held full-size fixtures:

  • heavy and weighty;
  • Designed to be held permanently.

Disadvantages of handheld flashlights:

  • not suitable for stationary use;
  • Designed for constant holding in the hands;
  • technical characteristics are low.

Cons of headlamps

Cons of headlamps:

  • unidirectional light flow;
  • slipping of the flashlight with a loose mount.

Disadvantages of flashlights-shockers:

  • high price;
  • hefty construction.

Cons of dynamo lights

Cons of dynamo lights:

  • low technical characteristics;
  • poor color rendering and low light intensity.

Disadvantages of laser lights:

  • heavy structures;
  • high price.

Keyfob cons

Keychain cons:

  • low technical characteristics;
  • illuminate a small area;
  • they are easy to lose.

Disadvantages of tactical flashlights:

  • high price;
  • light is directed to one target.

Cons of search lights

Cons of search lights:

  • large dimensions;
  • heavy structures.

How to choose a flashlight

Which is better to choose

  • First you need to decide on the purpose of the lamp. If you need a lamp for your home or garden, a flashlight with a D-format alkaline battery storage lamp will suffice. For hiking, choose LED lamps.
  • Depending on what you need a lantern for, we determine the required size of the luminaire. Hand-held pocket appliances to be used in everyday life should be light and compact so that they are easy and convenient to carry around.

For construction, you should choose lanterns that work stationary.

  • When selecting devices, consider the conditions in which you will have to work, hunt, travel.

For underwater sports, you will need models with a moisture-resistant case; at low temperatures, devices with a special frost-resistant coating are used.

  • Pay attention to the power of the light flux. It is not recommended to buy models with too bright light for summer cottages and domestic purposes, because with each lumen the amount of energy required to operate the device also increases.

lantern dlya-dajvinga

For such needs, a flashlight of 10-30 lm is enough. Cyclists, hunters use lamps of 100 lm.

  • An important criterion when choosing is the glow time. Choose models with 40 lumens of brightness from a single AA battery for up to four hours.

Compact flashlights, which are powered by a microfinger battery, provide a glow of 12 lm for 20 hours.

  • The temperature of the light should be as natural as possible.
  • Choose models equipped with several modes. The brightness of the flashlight should be adjusted to different environmental conditions. This will allow you to reduce and increase the brightness at different sections of the route, adjust the brightness of the light flux.
  • If you’re going to be using your flashlight a lot, stick with one that runs on AA or AAA batteries. Battery models are suitable for household needs.

how to choose a flashlight

  • If there are sealing rubber rings on the thread of the lamp, then the device case is moisture resistant. To prevent the flashlight from slipping out of gloves or wet hands, choose mechanisms with a notch on the body.
  • The best finish for the case is anodized (Type II or Type III). Take into account the complete set of the lamp. Special diffusers are used to scatter light in different directions, turning point light into flood light.
  • When choosing a rechargeable flashlight, specify the method of charging it.

The most common charger, which is designed for a household network with a voltage of 220 V, some types of flashlights are charged from a car cigarette lighter with a voltage of 12 V, there are models that can be charged from a USB port.

how to choose a flashlight

  • Buy fixtures from the professional series, which are distinguished by reliability, durability and cost-effectiveness. Such devices are equipped with a solid constructive, well-equipped.

The best flashlights:

  • have a solid structure;
  • work at low and high temperature conditions;
  • moisture and frost resistant;
  • easily portable;
  • portable and compact;
  • have a beautiful appearance.



Recommendations for the use and care of flashlights:

  • Store the flashlight in a dry and cool place so that it can be reached during a power outage.
  • Batteries should be replaced regularly, even if they have not been used for a long time.
  • It is advisable to have a flashlight in the house and car in case of emergencies. It is recommended to store additional batteries for replacement with the device.


  • It is not recommended to store flashlights at high temperatures, as a result, the batteries may leak.
  • To avoid overheating of the flashlight, do not use it for a long time at maximum power.
  • If you hold a flashlight and your palm starts to sweat, then you should switch to a gentle mode of operation. It is recommended to replace the thermal paste in the flashlight head every 2 years.
  • Before use, check that all parts of the flashlight are tightly screwed on. Worn silicone gaskets should be free of defects.


  • No matter how shockproof the flashlight is, try not to drop it on the floor, this leads to the fact that the lens and internal electronics deteriorate.
  • If the parts of the lamp body become tightly twisted, lubricate the rubber rings with silicone oil. When lubricating, it is not recommended to touch the threads due to the rapid accumulation of dirt.
  • If spots of the light beam appear on the lens, you should wipe the flashlight reflector. If it does not turn on, you will need to replace the battery, wipe the threaded elements with cotton swabs and be sure to check the contacts.

Precautionary measures:

Precautionary measures:

  • Children may only use the flashlight under the strict supervision of an adult.
  • It is impossible to direct the light beam directly into the eyes, this leads to a deterioration in vision.
  • Keep water and other liquids away from the batteries or internal parts of the flashlight.
  • Do not use damaged batteries.
  • Do not leave the device unattended in the maximum operating mode.

Precautionary measures:

  • Do not repair the flashlight yourself, it is better to contact specialists.
  • It is strictly forbidden to make changes to the design of the lamp.
  • Regardless of the functionality of the device, use the device only for its intended purpose.
  • Be careful with lithium-ion batteries, they can catch fire or explode if short circuited when exposed to high temperatures.



Warranty service for flashlights is provided for a period of 1 to 5 years, depending on the brand and type of product. To do this, you will need a warranty card or a receipt for the purchase.

The warranty will not be granted under the following conditions:

  • the product was used for other purposes;
  • the rules for the operation of mechanisms are violated;
  • low-quality batteries were used;
  • a battery leak has occurred;
  • There are traces of mechanical damage on the body of the device.



LED flashlight repair:

  • Does not turn on or flickers during operation. One solution is to screw threaded elements. Check the battery, it might be bad. To do this, unscrew the back cover of the flashlight and close the housing.
  • If the problem is with the modular button, insert round nose pliers or thin scissors into the holes and turn clockwise.
  • Check how tightly the LED module fits inside the case; loose fastening is quite common. To fix this, turn the module clockwise with round nose pliers or tongs until it stops.


You should be extremely careful, otherwise you can damage the LED.

  • If the flashlight gives a dim light, the problem is most likely a driver failure – the system that controls the lamp modes and is responsible for supplying voltage. To fix this problem, unsolder the burned out driver, replace it with a new one.
  • To check the operation of the LED, you should bring a voltage of 4.2 V to the contact pads of the LED. If it burns poorly, you should change it to a new element.

Lantern manufacturers



The products are made of high-class materials, the preference is given to Japanese and American. The model range is wide, so everyone will choose a flashlight for themselves for any needs: fishing, tourism, hunting, everyday use.

Most of the company’s LED lights have the following technical characteristics:

  • indication of temperature and charge level;
  • automatic transition to a lower brightness mode;
  • automatic protection against reverse polarity and chaotic inclusion;
  • signal modes (strobe, SOS, beacon).

The assortment includes goods for tourism, hunting and fishing, diving, extreme sports.



The group of German companies is a major manufacturer of industrial and household appliances. The assortment includes a wide range of products: refrigerators, washing machines, gas and electric stoves, vacuum cleaners, household appliances, power tools.

Products are durable, comfortable and environmentally friendly. Consumables and parts continue to be produced after the product has been discontinued for another 10 years. Prices for goods are reasonable, quality is high.



The American company is the world leader in the production of batteries. A century-old brand brought to life the best technologies of the century, for the first time saline and alkaline batteries, a flashlight, a battery with a tester were released.

Products include flashlights, chargers, miniature batteries and batteries for cameras.

The company cooperates with Swiss, Indonesian, American, Chinese firms. Products are delivered to more than 60 countries of the world, have advanced technical properties, and are improved every year.

The pricing policy corresponds to the quality of goods.



Founded in 1983 under the leadership of TRW to sell products on the secondary market. Today, the brand is a leader in the electrical and electronic automotive parts industry.

The company is engaged in the production of spare parts, identical to original parts, at an affordable cost.

Today, the brand is developing sensors, generators, ignition coils, starter traction relays and drives, detectors. The company has developed more than 10 product lines, the main ones in the auto parts market.



The Chinese company is engaged in the production of premium-class flashlights for hunting, hiking, fishing, search work. The products are strong, durable and easy to use.

A wide range of models is represented by powerful search models, camping lanterns, lamps for every day and a variety of accessories.


Fenix ​​products guarantee:

  • durable ergonomic body of devices;
  • far and near lighting function;
  • optimal indicator of power and operating time;
  • original design and reliable fastening.

The company uses innovative technologies, an acceptable ratio of quality and pricing policy.



Founded in 1993, the company specializes in the development and distribution of household electrical products. The assortment includes lamps, batteries, flashlights, seasonal electrical goods.

The dealer network includes 400 dealers from 110 cities of Russia, deliveries of goods are carried out to Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan.

LED Lenser

LED Lenser

Popular German company. With the help of advanced technologies and high-quality materials, specialists managed to achieve the maximum concentration of the light beam. Products are represented by underbarrel, search, headlamps.

The company’s products have the following characteristics:

  • tightness;
  • ergonomics;
  • advanced focusing system.



The company is engaged in the production of hand and pocket flashlights. The company’s products are not afraid of shock, water, dirt. Flashlights from Maglite are used by police officers, security guards, rescuers, doctors and firefighters.

Products are strictly certified, distributed in Western Europe, Asia and Africa. The price matches the quality.



German manufacturer of power tools, construction equipment, metalworking tools and garden tools. The company has branches in more than 100 countries around the world.

The company presents a huge selection of goods for machinery and construction work. The company’s product warranty is 3 years. The latest generation batteries are used.



The company that produces LED lights has been owned by SYSMAX Corporation since 2007. The company’s products are suitable for campers, tourists, climbers, cyclists, hunters.

Products are represented by a wide range of models and high-quality accessories. Warranty for flashlights – 60 months. Acceptable ratio of pricing policy and quality of goods.



The French company develops special equipment for climbers, rock climbers and spaleologists. Recently, the company produces:

  • equipment used for high-altitude work;
  • headlamps of general and special type;
  • equipment used for rescue operations.

Products comply with European and international standards, safety regulations.



The Russian company is engaged in the production of products for tourism and outdoor activities. The assortment includes alkaline and saline batteries, lithium cells, watch batteries, accumulators, various types of lanterns (head, camping, spotlights).



Russian company engaged in the production of lighting and electrical products. The company’s dealer network covers Russia, Germany, France, Hungary, Slovakia, Belarus, Ukraine.

The assortment includes electrical engineering, lighting engineering for industrial and individual needs.

Products are represented by light sources, lamps, decorative lighting, stabilizers, climate control equipment. Products comply with modern technological and legal standards, are strictly certified.

The price corresponds to the quality of the products.

Bright Luch

Bright Luch

The Russian trademark focuses on the production of portable power supplies at an affordable cost. The company produces high-quality flashlights used in different conditions.

Buyers actively participate in the process of testing and improving products. Prices correspond to the quality of goods.

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