Freezer – a device designed for freezing and long-term storage of frozen food supplies.
How Freezers Work
The main components of the freezer are:
- capillary tube;
- filter dryer;
The operation algorithm of the freezer is identical to the principle of operation of the refrigerator. In the evaporator, the refrigerant boils and begins to evaporate, turning into a gaseous form; at the same time, it removes heat from the interior of the chamber.
The process takes place at low pressure.
The compressor sucks in the refrigerant vapor and pressurizes it into the condenser at high pressure. Further, the refrigerant condenses, passing into the liquid phase and giving off heat to the environment. Passing through the filter-drier and capillary tubes, it is supplied to the evaporator.
The cooling cycle is repeated until the temperature inside the chamber reaches the set parameters, after which the thermostat activates and turns off the compressor.
The home appliance market offers a wide selection of freezing equipment, which differs in technical characteristics, design and color schemes.
The main technical characteristics of installations for freezing food products are the following nuances.
Depending on the design, freezing units are divided into the following types:
- chest freezers;
- ice makers.
Freezer chest It is a box with a lid on top. Inside the box there are lattice boxes for products. Suitable for storing large stocks, for example, pieces of meat weighing up to 30 kilograms.
Freezer on external execution it is similar to the traditional refrigerator. The internal space is divided into compartments by means of plastic boxes or shelves, the latter option is not in demand among the consumer.
Freezers are built-in and freestanding.
Freezer showcases – horizontal type units, the top cover of which is made of transparent materials, which allows you to see the products located inside the freezer.
The lid can have a sliding or rising design. Showcases are designed for use in retail outlets to demonstrate products sold.
ice maker – This is a type of freezing equipment designed for making edible ice.
Ice generators are classified according to the following parameters:
- by appointment – household and industrial;
- by type of installation – floor and desktop;
- according to the method of cooling – air and water;
- according to the method of filling water – flood and centralized;
- according to the shape of ice – the preparation of cubes, cones, granules, flakes, etc.
- Characterizes the capacity of the internal space of the chamber, measured in liters, ranges from 100-500 liters.
- For use in grocery stores and catering establishments, capacious freezers are required; for domestic use, a volume ranging from 100 to 260 liters is considered rational.
- You can calculate the required volume of a household freezer, guided by the accepted ratio – 50 liters per family member.
- The type of construction affects the volume of the chamber, chest freezers are characterized by greater capacity than vertical type freezers.
- The capacity of the ice generator hopper is indicated by the manufacturer in kilograms, depending on the model it varies in the range of 1-200 kg.
Number of branches
Drawers, shelves or a combination of both are used to organize the interior of freezers. The number of compartments depends on the installation height.
- height 85 cm – 3 compartments;
- height 100 cm – 4 compartments;
- height 120-150 cm – 6 compartments;
- height 156-167 cm – 7 compartments;
- height 180-200 cm – 8 compartments.
Cooling, freezing and subsequent storage of products in freezers takes place at medium and low temperatures. The operating mode of storage in domestic refrigeration units varies between minus 18 – minus 240FROM.
Freezing class – an indicator of the temperature in the freezer chamber; parameter on which the shelf life of food depends.
Marking is carried out in the form of asterisks, one star corresponds to -60FROM:
- * – the maximum shelf life of products is 7 days;
- ** – storage period up to one month;
- *** – storage period up to 90 days;
- **** – shelf life of products from six months to a year.
Determines the climatic conditions for the operation of the refrigeration unit.
There are four climate classes:
- subnormal (SN) with operating conditions from +10 to +320FROM;
- normal (N) with operating conditions from +16 to +320FROM;
- subtropical (ST) with operating conditions from +18 to +380FROM;
- tropical(T) with operating conditions from +18 to +430FROM.
Freezing power – an indicator of freezer performance; determines how much food the chamber can freeze in 24 hours.
On average, freezers for domestic use are designed to freeze from 5 to 15 kilograms of food per day, more powerful industrial units process up to 40 kilograms.
Cold retention time
An indicator that determines how long the freezer will maintain the set temperature in the chamber during autonomous operation (during a power outage).
It is indicated by the manufacturer in the technical data sheet of the installation, on average it is from 13 to 30 hours.
Freezers are equipped with a mechanical or electronic type of control.
With mechanical control The operating parameters of the freezer are set using the rotary switches. The rotary switches are connected to the cooling circuit and the electrical circuit.
With a mechanical type of control, the sensor fixes the temperature on the evaporator.
- low sensitivity to mains voltage drops;
- affordable cost.
Minus – the mechanical control system does not allow you to set the desired temperature with 100% accuracy.
With electronic control type pushbutton switches or touch panels are used to control the temperature inside the chamber. The sensor measures the temperature inside the chamber and displays the parameters on the display or indicator lights.
- adjustment accuracy;
The disadvantages include:
- susceptibility to voltage drops in the mains;
- high cost.
Freezer energy class
Energy consumption – the amount of electrical energy spent on the operation of the freezer. The energy class determines the ratio of the actual energy consumption and the standard energy consumption, indicated in Latin letters.
- A ++ – electricity consumption less than 30% of the norm;
- A + – energy consumption at the level of 30-42% of the standard indicator;
- A – the actual consumption of electricity is not more than 42-55%;
- B – energy consumption is 55-75%;
- C – electricity consumption 75-90% of the standard value;
- D – the actual consumption of electricity reaches 90-100% of the standard.
Overall dimensions of freezers
Standard freezer cabinet sizes:
- height is 65-200 cm;
- width is 40-140 cm;
- depth is 46-80 cm.
Chest freezer dimensions:
- height – from 78 to 100 cm;
- width – from 48 to 190 cm;
- depth – from 50 to 80 cm.
When choosing an installation for freezing, pay attention to the functions and capabilities of the unit.
Freezer defrost system
Freezer with No Frost function ensures long-term operation of the freezer without the need for manual defrosting.
Frost on the internal walls of the chamber and products is not formed due to the creation of proper circulation of cold air inside the freezer by means of a special fan.
Frost forms only on the surface of the evaporator, which is located on the back wall of the freezer and is hidden from the user’s eyes.
The principle of the system:
- At a specified interval, the circulation fan stops working for a while.
- The heater turns on, under the influence of which the frost on the walls of the evaporator thaws.
- The resulting water is discharged through special grooves into the pan and evaporates.
- uniform temperature inside the chamber;
- does not require human participation.
- reduces the useful volume of the chamber (up to 20 l);
- increases the cost of the freezer;
- increases the consumption of electricity;
- increased noise level during fan operation.
In freezers not equipped with the No Frost function, frost removal is carried out in manual mode. To do this, the unit is disconnected from the network, the products are removed from the chamber.
Manual defrosting is carried out on average once a year. Together with defrosting, sanitary cleaning of the internal surfaces of the chamber is performed.
- large volume of the freezer;
- democratic price.
- requires human participation;
- defrosting times must be observed.
- Door closing signal. The buzzer sounds if the freezer door is left open for more than one minute. After the doors are closed, it automatically stops.
- Child protection. The system locks the freezer doors and the electronic control panel.
- Antibacterial protection. Interferes with formation of unpleasant smells and infection of products with bacteria and fungi. The means of antibacterial protection include antibacterial filters, light infrared or ultraviolet radiation, deodorizers.
- Hanging doors. Provided in vertical type installations, it allows to ensure the opening of the freezer door in the desired direction – to the right or to the left.
- Ice generator. Built-in ice maker.
- Quick Freeze. Activating the function creates the conditions for freezing newly loaded products in a short period of time.
- Display. Displays the operating parameters of the unit.
Advantages of freezer cabinets:
- space saving;
- the possibility of sorting products;
- ease of use, free access to products.
Advantages of chest freezers:
- capacity (the internal space of the freezer allows you to place both small and large packages);
- low power consumption;
- reliable thermal insulation;
- low noise level;
- affordable cost.
- A vertical freezer will require more electricity to operate.
- Freezers have a smaller usable volume compared to horizontal freezers.
- Freezer cabinets are more expensive.
- The main disadvantage of horizontal type installations (chests) is the complex organization of the processes of stacking and taking out products. To get frozen food from the bottom of the chest, you will need to remove the lattice boxes; inconvenient to store small items.
- The disadvantages of chest freezers include inefficient use of space; in comparison with freezers, they require more space.
How to choose a freezer
The main recommendations for choosing a freezer:
- Before buying, decide on the purpose of using the unit, the operating conditions and the location of the equipment.
- Choose a cabinet color that will harmoniously fit into the design of the room where the freezer is to be installed.
- Assess your financial capabilities.
Based on the above factors, decide on the type of construction, overall dimensions, control system and necessary functions.
When choosing a freezer for an apartment, you should opt for vertical-type installations, as they are the most ergonomic.
For the organization of long-term storage of products in a country house and the expected large volumes of freezing, a chest freezer would be an ideal option.
When choosing a freezer, you should pay attention to the design of the drawers: models with pull-out containers are more practical and easy to use than similar devices with hinged lids. For shelves, glass is the best option.
Which is better
Universal freezer for home use is a device:
- with a noise level indicator of not more than 42 dB;
- energy class “A +” or “A ++”;
- freezing class ***;
- freezing capacity of 6-10 kilograms per day.
Ideal freezer and storage cabinet products must have:
- lighting inside the chamber;
- shelves on the doors;
- pull-out baskets;
- No Frost function;
- fast freezing mode;
- “safe lock” function;
- an indicator that warns of an increase in the temperature inside the chamber.
Important parameters of the ideal chest freezer are:
- comfortable lighting;
- the presence of a locking mechanism;
- the presence of a power-on indicator;
- work signal;
- adjustable baffle;
- have at least one basket.
Operation of freezers
Transport and storage
Transportation of equipment is carried out in the working position of the unit. The freezer must not be subjected to shock loads during transport and handling.
The packed freezer should be stored indoors, where the humidity level does not exceed 80%.
Installation and connection of the freezer
The freezer is installed in a ventilated dry room, away from heat sources:
- the minimum distance from a gas or electric furnace is 3 cm;
- from heaters – 5 cm;
- from furniture and walls – 2 cm.
- Do not expose the device to direct sunlight.
- Ventilation openings must be open.
- The freezer is not designed for outdoor use.
- After installing the freezer, the appliance is not connected to the mains for at least two hours.
- The freezer is powered by a grounded outlet. Before connecting the plug to the power socket, make sure that the mains voltage corresponds to the voltage recommended by the manufacturer.
- Before using for the first time, wipe the surfaces of the device with warm water diluted with vinegar, remove excess moisture with a soft, dry cloth.
- Read the instructions before using the device.
Rules for freezing and storing food in the freezer
- The chamber is used only for freezing products indicated by the manufacturer in the instructions.
- When laying fresh supplies, avoid contact with already frozen food.
- The amount of fresh food should not exceed the daily allowance.
- To ensure the preservation of food, the load level should be 3 cm below the edge of the freezer.
- Avoid frequent opening of the chamber doors.
- Observe the shelf life of frozen foods.
- Do not use extension cords or branched outlets to connect the freezer.
- The appliance must not be used by children, persons with mental or mental disabilities.
- Do not touch the receptacle with wet hands to avoid electric shock.
- Do not freeze carbonated drinks or drinks in glass bottles in the freezer.
- In units with mechanical defrosting, frost on the internal surfaces of the freezer with a thickness of not more than 3 mm is removed with a plastic scraper, which is included in the appliance package.
- If the layer of frost reaches 6 mm, the freezer is completely defrosted.
- The manufacturer’s recommendations regarding the manual defrosting method can be found in the instructions for use.
- Units with an automatic defrosting system do not need defrosting, it is enough to wash the chambers once every 1-2 years.
- Before cleaning, the freezer is disconnected from the power supply.
- The external surfaces of the appliance are washed with water with the addition of a liquid detergent.
- To clean varnished surfaces, use alcohol-based cleaners and a soft cloth.
- The inner walls of the freezer are washed with warm water with the addition of vinegar or a small amount of detergent.
- After washing, the surfaces of the device are dried with a dry cloth.
- Cleaning the condenser from dust is carried out with a vacuum cleaner.
- When cleaning the freezer, do not use a steam cleaner, cleaners containing abrasive particles or acid.
- It is necessary to monitor the safety of the name plate installed on the inner wall of the chamber.
On average, warranty obligations are valid for 24 months. They include free service, repair and elimination of defects caused by the fault of the manufacturer. The terms of the warranty are set out in the warranty card.
The warranty does not apply in the following cases:
- The failure occurred due to the fault of the user as a result of violation of the rules for storage, transportation and operation of the electrical appliance.
- The freezer malfunction is associated with chemical, thermal or mechanical damage to the appliance or its components.
- The failure of the unit was caused by force majeure – floods, fires and other natural disasters.
- The seal on the freezer power supply is broken.
The warranty does not cover the following parts:
- glass shelves;
- plastic products, including plastic door handles;
- incandescent lamps;
- decorative shield.
Faults and repairs
Freezer does not freeze
If the temperature inside the freezer began to rise, the first thing to check is:
- tightness of the door;
- defrost button (is it not turned on);
- thermostat position.
Problem not fixed? Then the possible causes of the malfunction are:
- compressor failure;
- refrigerant leak;
- blockage of the cooling system;
- failure of the thermostat or control unit;
- failure of the heater (applies to freezers with the No Frost function).
To eliminate the indicated defects, you may need:
- sealing the cooling circuit and filling freon;
- compressor replacement;
- purging the capillary tube and replacing the filter;
- replacement of a temperature sensor, thermostat or control unit.
Carrying out the above operations will require special equipment and professional skills, it is better to contact specialists.
Freezer does not turn on
Possible causes of the problem:
- low voltage of the mains;
- malfunction of the plug socket or power cord;
- incorrect installation of the unit;
- failure of the thermostat or defrost button;
- compressor malfunction;
- oxidation of contacts, problems in the control unit.
Ways to solve the problem:
- Check the mains voltage with a multimeter by connecting the measuring probes of the device to the socket contacts. The normal voltage for the operation of the unit is 220 V.
- If the voltage in the network is correct, then you need to check the outlet itself. To do this, plug another electrical appliance into the socket. If it works, then the cause of the breakdown of the freezer should be looked for elsewhere.
- Check for light in the freezer compartment. If the light does not come on when the door is opened, then the cause of the malfunction is most likely related to the power cord. If the cord is crushed, broken, or broken, it will need to be replaced.
- Modern freezers are equipped with automatic control and safety systems.
If the freezer is installed incorrectly, there is a skew, as a result of which the door does not fit snugly enough, the system may block the compressor from turning on.
- To test the thermostat, remove the terminal and connect the two wires connected to the thermostat directly. If at the same time the motor starts up, then the thermostat is out of order and needs to be replaced. The defrost button is checked in the same way.
- The reasons for the failure of the compressor can be a winding break, an interturn circuit, a short to the housing. To diagnose the motor, you need an ohmmeter.
The resistance between the compressor contacts is checked, the value of which should be 18-20 ohms, a smaller value indicates a motor malfunction. To fix the problem, you will need to replace the compressor.
- If all the components and parts described above are normal, then the cause of the malfunction is most likely related to an open circuit. Oxidation of contacts can lead to it; to eliminate the defect, all contacts are protected.
Freezer won’t turn on? You will need to diagnose the control module.
Freezer hums or clicks
Increased noise level during operation of the unit may be due to improper installation, level the freezer to correct the problem.
If during the operation of the freezer, clicks began to appear along with certain symptoms, then this may indicate serious problems:
- There are clicks, the compressor does not start up, there is no light inside the chamber – the start-up relay has failed. The solution to the problem is to replace the node.
- Clicks are periodically heard, the compressor does not work, the light inside the chamber lights up – the thermostat is broken. The solution is to replace the failed thermostat.
- After clicking, you start the motor, it starts to hum, and then turns off, clicking loudly – the motor-compressor is out of order. The compressor needs to be replaced.
- During normal operation of the freezer, clicks appear before turning off the compressor – the compressor mount is loose, the freezer is not installed correctly.
The way out of the situation is to change the position of the freezer, adjust the springs holding the compressor.
Freezer is leaking
- problems in the operation of the drainage system;
- heater malfunction (in models with the No Frost function);
- seal wear;
- freezer not installed correctly.
- The drain tube has moved away from the sump. In this case, water is formed under the freezer, the inside of the freezer is dry. Remedy – put the tube back in place.
- The drain hole is clogged. Water accumulates inside the freezer. The solution to the problem is cleaning the drainage channel.
- The heater has failed. When the heater exits in freezers with the No Frost system, the moisture condensed in the chamber does not evaporate, but turns into frost.
When the doors are opened, the frost melts, the resulting liquid flows down the drainage system into the pan, overflows the container and flows out onto the floor. To fix the problem, you will need to replace the heating element.
- The rubber seal of the freezer door is deformed or cracked, which leads to a loose fit of the door to the wall of the freezer. The solution to the problem is to replace the worn seal with a new one.
- If the appliance is installed incorrectly, the door does not fit snugly against the body of the product, warm air enters the interior of the freezer, which leads to water leakage. To fix the defect, level the freezer.
Camera lamp does not light up
A common cause of a malfunction is a burnt out light bulb. Troubleshooting – installing a new lamp.
The market of freezing equipment offers the consumer a variety of models of domestic and foreign production.
Freezers of Belarusian production are popular among domestic consumers.
The lineup includes three lines:
The company’s catalog contains freezers with a body of white, olive, silver, ruby, salad, cappuccino color.
A characteristic feature is the use of isobutane as a refrigerant. The units are designed for operation in climatic conditions +10 – +430FROM.
Krasnoyarsk plant Biryusa
The largest manufacturer of refrigeration equipment for domestic and industrial use in the domestic market. Serial production of refrigeration and freezing equipment at the enterprises began in 1964.
The production base of the enterprise is equipped with high-tech equipment manufactured in Germany, Japan, Italy and Korea. Biryusa freezers are equipped with Danfoss and ACC compressors, which are manufactured in Denmark and Austria.
The main advantages of Biryusa freezers:
- high class of energy efficiency;
- environmental friendliness.
The guarantee for Biryusa plant products is valid for 3 years.
The world famous company Gorenje has been producing refrigeration equipment since 1968. The production base of the brand is located in Slovenia, the company produces high-tech freezing equipment using innovative technologies:
- fast freeze;
- NoFrost absolute.
The Gorenje line includes freezers of horizontal and vertical type. The color scheme is represented by classic white and silver.
A feature of Slovenian-made freezing equipment is ergonomics with high performance.
The width of Gorenje freezers does not exceed 60 cm, and the height of the chest freezer is no more than 85 cm. At the same time, the productivity of individual models of the Burning line reaches 20 kilograms per day with a useful chamber volume of 220 liters.
The well-known Italian brand IndesitCompany was founded in 1975, today the company occupies a leading position in the home appliances market.
Freezers of the Indesit brand are spacious, convenient devices with an attractive price and thoughtful organization of the internal space.
A feature of the production is the fact that Indesit does not produce its own compressors, freezing units are equipped with motors from other manufacturers.
Italian manufacturers are confident in the quality of their products; the warranty period for Indesit brand freezing equipment is 3 years.
The range of freezers of the well-known German brand includes small-sized devices up to 85 cm high, built-in and freestanding models. The company offers the consumer freezing equipment of Premium, Comfort, PremiumPlus classes.
Liebherr freezers are highly efficient equipment, with energy classes A+++, A+ and A.
For the safe storage of food products, freezers are equipped with acoustic temperature sensors and an indicator of the Frost Control system, which promptly notify the consumer of an increase in temperature inside the freezer.
The main advantage of Liebherr freezers is the legendary German quality, minus the cost, the products belong to the goods of the middle price category.
The Russian company specializes in the production of refrigeration equipment for domestic and medical purposes. Freezers are characterized by silent operation, the noise level of the equipment does not exceed 40 dB.
The equipment belongs to the climatic class N and can be operated in the temperature range +16-+320FROM.
To improve the anti-corrosion properties, the company’s developers solder the components of the freezer compressor system with a special compound containing a large amount of silver. Isobutane R600a is used as a refrigerant.
In order to reduce power consumption, LED or LED illumination is used for internal lighting of the camera. The product warranty is 1 year. The main advantage is affordable cost.
The products of the Saratov Electric Plant have been on the refrigeration equipment market since 1951. The Russian company offers the consumer budget models of Saratov brand freezing equipment.
To date, the line has about 15 models, which differ in overall dimensions, design and technical equipment.
The volume of freezers will vary in the range of 90-300 liters. Energy class B and C. Defrost type – manual.
The warranty period set by the manufacturer is 3 years.
The model range includes freezers of a vertical and horizontal design. All products are certified and meet international quality standards.
- attractive design.
The Shivaki range of freezers ranges from high-priced models equipped with the latest innovative technology to more affordable options. Energy class – A and A +.
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