The fan operation algorithm is based on the movement of air due to the supply of energy from a rotating wheel with blades, which is mounted on the motor shaft.
When the wheel rotates under the action of centrifugal force, the air mixture is released into the atmosphere at a certain speed.
The devices are used not only as household appliances, but also in local ventilation systems and supply and exhaust equipment.
They are used to reduce the temperature of the heating elements of heating and air conditioning mechanisms, as well as to blow the cooling radiators of various equipment.
According to the principle of operation and design features fans are divided into several types:
- radial (centrifugal);
- axial (axial);
- diametrical (cross).
Depending on the direction of rotation of the impellerand the ventilation device can be:
- right-hand rotation mechanism (impeller rotates clockwise when viewed from the air intake side);
- left hand rotation mechanism (counterclockwise rotation).
Depending on the type of mediumin which the fan operates, the mechanisms are divided into:
- Standard. The temperature of the transported medium (air or gas) does not exceed 80 degrees Celsius.
- Resistant to corrosion. These units are used in corrosive environments.
- Heat resistant. The temperature can exceed 80 degrees Celsius.
- Dust. They are used where the atmosphere is very dusty.
- Explosion-proof. Used in environments that are explosive.
By design features fans are divided depending on the method of fastening the impeller and the electric motor:
- with stepless transmission;
- with V-belt transmission;
- with a tight mount directly on the engine;
- with fastening on an elastic coupling.
Fans are divided into groups depending on installation location:
- Standard. Installation on a special support. Its role is played by the foundation, frame and other fasteners.
- Channel. Such models are mounted in air ducts.
- Rooftop. Fasteners are made on the roof of the building.
Ventilation mechanisms are divided into three categories by the magnitude of the generated pressure when moving air:
- reduced pressure – up to 1 kPa;
- medium pressure – up to 3 kPa;
- high pressure – up to 12 kPa.
Fans are divided into types depending on installation method:
- Desktop. Similar models are intended for installation on an office table, the dimensions are medium, equipped with a special stand.
- Floor. Installed directly on the floor, does not require additional fastening.
- Wall. The kit includes fasteners for wall mounting. Dimensions may vary.
- Ceiling. These devices are mounted on the ceiling or inside a grid system. The fan is controlled via the remote control.
Principle of operation
Let us consider in detail each type of device according to the type of their work.
Externally, the device is a casing with a cylindrical base, which houses a wheel with blades. On the casing there are special holes for mounting the device.
The paddle wheel is mounted directly on the axle. The air flow is parallel to the axis.
At the entrance to the mechanism, a collector is provided, designed to improve aerodynamics in the operation of the device. In the absence of a counter flow, the power consumption of this type of mechanism is small.
If air flow is present, then more power is required.
The efficiency of the axle unit is much higher than other types of mechanisms. The pressure and amount of air supplied is regulated by rotary blades. Axial devices are usually used to supply large volumes of air at low resistances.
Air in such mechanisms is taken in according to the same principle as in axial models, but the release is already going in a diagonal direction. The shroud is conical so that the flow rate increases as pressure is applied to the fan propeller.
Diagonal mechanisms are distinguished by a high blowing speed and a reduced noise level (compared to axial devices).
The centrifugal unit consists of an impeller located in a spiral casing. During rotation, the supplied air moves in the radial direction and begins to compress in the region of the impeller.
Then the flow enters the spiral casing under the action of centrifugal force, after which it goes to the heating hole.
Structurally, the radial device is a hollow cylinder, on the surface of which the blades are located parallel to the axis of rotation. Between themselves, they are fastened with special disks.
These structural elements are made with bent ends, their number depends on the direct purpose of the unit. Rotation is carried out in the right or left side.
In climate systems, several types of radial fans are used:
- The suction of air in which occurs in one or both directions.
- In the design of the mechanism, the electric motor is located on one shaft or there is a V-belt transmission.
- The blades in the device have a shape bent forward or backward.
Back-curved blades increase productivity and save energy.
This category consists of a casing with a nozzle and a diffuser, the impeller is equipped with forward-curved blades. The wheel is structurally similar to a drum. The principle of operation of such a mechanism is based on the double passage of air across the impeller.
Diametrical fans are characterized by high aerodynamic performance. They are capable of supplying a uniform airflow over a limited range.
Structurally, the device is designed in such a way that it is easy to turn it to the sides, giving the air masses the desired direction. This type of units is used in indoor units of split systems, air curtains and other air conditioning and ventilation systems.
The main element of the device is a turbine, the air flow is formed due to its operation. This element is hidden in the base of the case. The air flow moves through the slots in the frame due to the aerodynamic effect.
The complete set of the frame profile contributes to rarefaction of air, it is additionally sucked in from the rear side of the case.
The total flow volume is increased up to 16 times (compared to the performance of a single turbine). Bladeless fans are quite noisy, but there are no external moving parts, which makes the rotorless device safer.
- Total pressure, measured in pascals.
- Air consumption, or the performance of a mechanism, is measured in cubic meters per hour.
- The speed of the impeller, measured in revolutions per minute.
- The power consumption that is spent on the drive of the device is measured in kilowatts.
- Sound pressure or noise level, measured in decibels. This indicator is determined from the side where the air is sucked in, and in those places from where the flow enters the room.
- Efficiency. The indicator takes into account aerodynamic losses, losses due to leaks through thickenings, power losses due to friction in various parts of the mechanism.
Ventilation units have a number of additional functions that make the mechanism more efficient and easy to manage:
- Moisturizing. Allows you to cool the room without drying the air. The device increases the cost of the product, but is good for health.
- Ionization. Purifies the air and restores the balance of negative ions. The ionizer is very useful for children, the elderly and everyone who spends a long time at the computer. It is recommended to use such a device during the period of seasonal diseases.
It is strictly forbidden to use an ionizer:
- with oncological diseases,
- elevated body temperature,
- after operations
- with bronchial asthma,
- in heavily dusty areas,
- in violation of blood circulation in the brain,
- with hypersensitivity or individual intolerance to ionized air.
- Rotary system. The system allows you to direct the flows in any desired direction.
- Timer. Allows you to program the fan on/off mode.
- Hydrostat. Ventilation device for the bathroom, which is equipped with a humidity sensor. The mechanism turns on automatically when a certain humidity is reached. This parameter allows you to control the humidity level in damp rooms.
- Motion Sensor. Allows you to automatically turn on the ventilation system when a person appears in the room. Shutdown occurs after an interval that is set by the timer.
- Clock. They are located on the main panel of the device.
- Airing. The constant ventilation mode implies the operation of the device at a low speed, providing a minimum air exchange. If the humidity increases, the mode switches to maximum.
- Splash protection. With this parameter, special models of units are produced, which are supposed to be used in rooms where there are constant splashes of water. Splash protection on the device is marked IP*4.
- check valve. The function is useful when one ventilation system is installed in a room with several rooms. Valves allow you to start the system selectively and block access to some rooms.
Equipment and accessories
The standard set includes fasteners and other parts for installation. The complete set depends on type and type of the mechanism.
Fan accessories are understood as all their components, as well as additional equipment that simplifies the operation of the unit:
- Protective grilles of different sizes and designs.
- Batteries for autonomous work. Batteries are designed for several hours, have the ability to recharge up to several hundred times, and also save electricity.
- Rain protection.
- Control unit with temperature sensor. It helps to remotely control the mechanism and monitor various parameters.
Advantages and disadvantages
Each type of ventilation unit has its own advantages.
- the presence of a thermal control system;
- low power consumption;
- the ability to adjust the rotation of the platform;
- little space is needed to mount the device;
- the mechanism works with proper operation trouble-free and well-functioning.
- acceptable overload;
- saving of electrical energy is about 20 percent;
- impeller of small diameter;
- low shaft speed;
- noise performance is low.
- safe, as they are in an inaccessible place;
- convenient, no need to disassemble, pack and store;
- save space in the room.
- are inexpensive;
- easy to operate.
Supply and exhaust:
- used in office, industrial or administrative buildings;
- comply with sanitary and hygienic standards.
- reliable in work;
- do not require additional maintenance;
- possibility of installation in any place;
- thermocontacts are provided in the package;
- there is speed control.
With smoke extraction function:
- mounted on the unused area of the building, thereby saving space;
- smoky air instantly moves into the environment;
- possibility of operation at low and high temperatures.
Each type of ventilation units has its drawbacks.
- work only with clean air;
- there are high vibrations and noises;
- in the production of rotating elements, high requirements are applied.
- there are high vibrations and noises;
- high requirements for the manufacture of elements of rotation.
- the ceiling should be above 2.7 meters.
- consume a lot of electrical energy;
- air can be simultaneously supplied to a maximum of two rooms;
- when installing supply systems, the height of the ceiling is reduced.
Supply and exhaust:
- it is necessary to periodically remove the accumulated condensate;
- noise during work;
- there is no cooling system.
- power is lost due to the large gap in the ring.
- They are unsafe, since there is a possibility of ignition of combustible materials from which the roof is made, so the outlet must be at a height of more than two meters.
Which is better to choose
- For an office or a small room, a table fan option is suitable; it is convenient to place it in various parts of the space, on a closet, on a table on shelves. Choose a model with a rotating body so that you can blow more space.
- If you want to feel at sea, feel the coolness of the south wind, choose a model equipped with a breeze simulation mode.
- If you want the fan to run at night and not disturb your sleep, choose a unit with night mode, which operates silently and efficiently.
- For convenience and comfortable control of the ventilation device, purchase models that include a remote control and a timer.
- For large rooms, it is recommended to purchase fans of large dimensions with the ability to rotate the case.
- Column models do not have blades; they are considered the safest compared to other types.
In addition to all standard types, there are stationary ventilation systems that do their job just as well, making the air cleaner.
Ventilation and air conditioning systems are installed in any premises that require constant air renewal.
- Atmospheric pressure is about 100 kPa.
- The air temperature in the room varies within 20 degrees Celsius.
- The air density should be no more than 1.2 kg per square meter.
- The relative humidity of the room reaches 50 percent.
It is important to note that it will not be possible to accurately calculate all pressure losses, therefore it is recommended to purchase devices with a pressure margin of about 15 percent.
Warranty and malfunctions
The warranty period for fans depends on the purpose of the unit and the manufacturer. The guarantee for the uninterrupted operation of the device is given if it is used in accordance with the rules specified in the user manual.
If you don’t have a fan at home, make sure it’s plugged in first. If it still does not turn on, then it is necessary to identify the cause of the breakdown by contacting the service center.
The cost of repair depends on the price of the broken part and the price list for the services of the master. If you are at least a little versed in technology, and the product has already expired the warranty period, then you can repair the fan yourself.
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