Dishwashers are multifunctional household appliances that are gaining popularity among consumers along with refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, stoves, etc.

A few years ago, such equipment belonged to the category of expensive goods. However, the desire to make your life comfortable and practical has led to the fact that the dishwasher has become a faithful assistant for many families.

Principle of operation

The dishwasher provides impeccable cleanliness of dishes and kitchen utensils due to the fact that the water temperature in the machine reaches 60 degrees, which means that the active components of detergents cope with any type of dirt more effectively.

In addition, this technique provides additional drying of dishes, preventing the appearance of stains and stains from water on them.

Complete removal of dirt and grease from kitchen utensils is carried out with the help of a water jet supplied from the machine’s rocker arm at a speed of up to 150–160 km/h. Dirty wastewater is discharged into the lower compartment for thorough filtration and recirculation.

Expensive models are equipped with special filters in which cleaning is performed automatically, and the accumulated dirt is removed through a drainage pump into the sewer.

Automatic intake of the required volume of water is carried out by a built-in pump through the bypass valve, which is located at the junction of the hose with the device body.

There is also a standard filter – a mesh, which is designed to hold large pieces of debris. The central pump supplies water through a pipe to the rocker arms.


Key Benefits:

  • Simplicity and efficiency of the process of washing kitchen utensils at any time of the day;
  • Hot water supply is not necessary to use the machine;
  • Washing dishes in the car allows you to reduce water consumption by almost 5 times;
  • For the dishwasher, the use of strong detergents that have a negative effect on human skin is allowed;
  • Rinsing dishes is carried out at a high temperature, which allows you to effectively remove detergent residues.

Types of dishwashers

Types and their sizes

The design features of such equipment include the selection of a suitable place in the kitchen or bathroom for connection to a water riser, sewer drain and electrical outlet.

By installation method

According to the installation method, modern models can be divided into two types: free-standing and built-in (with partial or full installation).

Freestanding – have their own body with a tabletop lid. Such machines are more affordable to install, maintain and cheaper compared to embedded counterparts. In some models, the top cover is removable, so it can be replaced if necessary.

Embedded – are selected at the stage of designing a kitchen set. You can choose models with full embedding or partial, when the top panel remains open.

Fully built-in – are installed in a furniture set, so outwardly they become almost invisible to prying eyes. The control panel is also securely hidden behind a decorative facade, but is available to start the device and select a working program.

In devices with partial embeddingthe control panel sits on top of the decorative façade and provides quick access to the machine.

Dimensions: height, depth, width

Depending on the size, the following types are distinguished: full-size, compact and narrow.

full size – they are standard-sized devices that can be installed on the floor or mounted in a kitchen set.

Compact – are intended for installation on a table or cabinet due to their small size.

At standard height, narrow differ in width and depth. They can be installed both in furniture and on the floor.

The height of the full size and narrow models is between 80 and 88 cm. The height of compact devices does not exceed 50 cm. Some models of built-in machines are equipped with screw feet for height adjustment.

The width in standard full-size devices is 60 cm, in non-standard models it reaches 80 cm, and in narrow ones – from 45 to 50 cm.

Full-sized devices have a standard depth of 60 cm, and compact ones up to 50 cm.

Given the dimensions of dishwashers, you can choose the most suitable option:

  • Compact models up to 45 cm high – place under the kitchen sink or sink;
  • Full-size models up to 88 cm high – install next to the sink under the countertop or instead of the kitchen cabinet;
  • Compact devices – built into the kitchen set or installed on a separate cabinet;
  • Narrow – place under the sink or under the countertop.

In this case, do not forget about the width. For a small kitchen, it is better to choose compact or narrow models; for standard rooms, full-sized freestanding devices are suitable.

Characteristics of dishwashers

The weight

The total weight of the dishwasher is determined by its design and functionality. It is noteworthy that the lower the noise level during operation, the greater the weight of the equipment. In addition, additional mechanisms increase the weight, which ensures low consumption of electricity and water.

Also, the weight directly depends on its dimensions and ranges from 17 to 65 kg.

  • Standard full size maximum load appliances weigh between 38 and 56 kg;
  • Narrow devices of medium load weigh from 28 to 39 kg;
  • Compact, small-sized devices with minimum load weigh from 17 to 23 kg.

Flow type water heater

Heating of cold water in the dishwasher is carried out using a heating element. Many models of devices previously used spiral water heaters, which are equipped with electric kettles. Such a heater provided rapid heating of a certain volume of water.

Dishwashers of the new generation are equipped with closed heaters, which are located outside the working chamber of the appliance. Water is heated to the desired temperature and is supplied instantly to the washing chamber. The flow heater provides fast heating, while simplifying the process of filtering water and saving electricity.

Noise level

The dishwasher is quite noisy household appliances, along with the washing machine and vacuum cleaner. Therefore, when choosing such a unit, it is recommended to give preference to models with a reinforced soundproof housing.

This characteristic may differ for different manufacturers, but on average the noise level in machines ranges from 26 to 64 dB. The quietest devices are considered to be with a noise level of 45 dB.

Case color scheme

The color scheme of the dishwasher body depends on the specific model and manufacturer. The right color will allow you to perfectly fit the appliances into the stylistic design of the room, taking into account the kitchen set and other household equipment.

Consumers can be offered dishwashers in the following body colors:

  • Silver;
  • White;
  • Under stainless steel;
  • Black;
  • Gray;
  • Another.

Machine capacity

It defines the maximum number of cookware sets and utensils that can be loaded and processed in the machine during one work cycle.

The standard package includes a set of cutlery per person – different types of plates (for first and second courses, salads, bread and cold cuts), spoons and forks, a cup and a tea saucer.

Dishwashers are designed for the following number of sets:

  • 3 to 8 sets;
  • 8 to 12 sets;
  • 12 to 15 sets;
  • From 15 to 18 sets.

Standard full size machines hold up to 12 sets, compact machines up to 7 sets, non-standard machines up to 18 sets.

For a family of 3, devices with a capacity of up to 6 sets are suitable, for families of 5-6 people, devices with a capacity of up to 10 sets should be selected, and for large families or use in cafeterias, overall devices with a maximum capacity.

It is important to remember that the dishwasher should be loaded as you accumulate sets of dishes, so for home use, devices with a minimum capacity are the best option.

Classes: energy consumption, washing and drying

The electricity consumption class is a technical characteristic that determines the degree of economy in terms of electricity consumption. Washing and drying class – the corresponding parameters that determine the quality of the operations performed – washing and drying dishes. The higher the score, the more economical the device.

Energy consumption class

According to the European classification, there are 7 classes of energy consumption, each of which corresponds to a certain letter designation from A to G. A high class corresponds to low energy consumption.

Appliances that belong to classes A, B and C are economical, D and E are of medium efficiency, F and G are the most energy-intensive.

Modern models of machines belong to class A, A +++, B and C. Class A +++ is assigned to devices that have the lowest level of energy consumption. Devices marked with + can save up to 10% of energy, and with ++ they save up to 35%.

Wash class

A similar indicator determines the quality of washing and rinsing dishes in one working cycle. Most models have three basic dishwashing modes – easy, standard and accelerated. In some models, there are up to 18-20 additional modes for various categories of dishes.

The class depends on many factors – the volume and speed of the water supplied through the nozzles for washing and rinsing dishes.

The technique can have two washing classes – A (complete removal of contaminants) and B (with minor residual contaminants). Older models of machines belong to classes C and E, which are not of high quality washing.

Drying class

Determines the quality of drying dishes. There are 3 drying classes – A, B and C. For devices of class A, ideal drying of dishes without stains and smudges is provided, for classes B and C – slight drops of water or stains are allowed.

Drying methods

There are three main drying methods in the machines: condensation, forced and heat exchange.

  • Drying heat exchange – provides processing of dishes using heat exchange, which occurs when water is removed and steam is supplied.
  • Condensation drying – available in budget models. It provides for the evaporation of excess moisture by the formation of condensate and its removal through the drain hole.
  • Intensive drying – implemented in expensive models. It allows you to speed up the process of drying dishes by forcing warm air with a built-in fan.

Power consumption (maximum)

Power depends on energy consumption, so class A appliances will have lower power than class C machines.

So, in relation to the class, the power consumption is:

  • A class – power from 0.8 to 1.04 kWh per cycle;
  • In class – power from 1.05 to 1.1 kWh per cycle;
  • C class – power from 1.1 to 1.5 kWh.

The maximum power rating reaches 3.3 kW, but for most low-power models it does not exceed 2 kW.

Power consumption per cycle

Another indicator that determines the technical capabilities of the device is the consumption of electricity for the wash cycle. Depending on the consumption class and washing class, the dishwasher can consume from 250 W to 2.1 kW per hour per cycle. For economical models, this figure is minimal.

Illumination of the inner chamber

Lighting elements are installed inside the working chamber, which turn on when the chamber is opened. Lighting makes loading and unloading dishes easier. Lighting is implemented in expensive device models.

Leak protection system

All models of machines have a reliable leak protection system.

It is presented in two forms:

  • Complete protection – designed to protect the entire body. It is implemented using a float sensor, which is installed in the pallet. When the tray overflows or chamber leaks are detected, the device automatically turns off. This leads to the cessation of water intake, and the already filled volume of water is discharged into the drain hole.
  • Partial protection – designed to protect the drain hose with the installation of an inlet valve, which is triggered to close and stop the water supply if a leak is detected.

Control method

Dishwashers have two control methods: electromechanical and electronic.


It provides for simple and affordable control of equipment using control keys and on / off levers, work program selection knobs and other options. Mechanical controls are located on the front panel of the case.


The electronic method is implemented in expensive models. In this case, the control elements are the “Start” button and operating keys for selecting suitable washing programs.

Devices with an electronic panel automatically determine the necessary washing parameters, taking into account the number of sets of kitchen utensils and the degree of their contamination.

Additionally, such devices are provided with displays for outputting digital or text data. They show the washing temperature, the degree of water hardness, the time until the end of the work program, service information.

Display (screen)

The display is equipped with devices with an electronic control panel. It is intended for displaying operating modes, setting functions and service data. In the active mode, the display shows the set program and its duration, timer, information about malfunctions.

Expensive models are equipped with an LCD display with the ability to display text information. The large display size provides comfortable control of the device.

Water consumption

Using a dishwasher provides a significant reduction in water consumption compared to traditional manual dishwashing.

There are three main classes of water consumption per cycle:

  • Class A – up to 16 liters of water are consumed;
  • Class B – from 16 to 21 liters of water;
  • Class C – from 21 to 26 liters of water is consumed.

It is noteworthy that with the highest water consumption class (C), the device uses 2-3 times less resources than with manual washing. This means that with regular use, the dishwasher saves up to 8,000 liters of water annually.

Washing time in standard mode

The standard program is for daily washing and rinsing of dishes with light and medium soiling at temperatures up to 60 degrees. The duration of such a program is from half an hour to 5 hours.

Washing temperatures

Dishwashers provide from 1 to 10 temperature modes, taking into account the specific model and optional set. The operating temperature of washing in the car is from 28 to 73 degrees. Each individual program is performed in accordance with the temperature regime set for it.

Supply water heating temperature (maximum value)

Modern dishwashers can be connected to hot and cold water supply. In the first case, hot water is supplied to the working chamber, the temperature of which must correspond to the set level.

In the second case, the machine independently heats cold water with a heater and supplies it to the working chamber. The maximum allowable temperature for heating water during supply reaches 70 degrees.

Cutlery basket

It is installed at the top of the chamber and is designed to accommodate forks, spoons, knives, as well as small kitchen utensils.

Basket for placing dishes with the ability to adjust the height

The upper basket is placed in 2 working positions, taking into account the dimensions of dishes and accessories. It is equipped with additional holders for plates, saucers and cups.

Holder for fragile glasses and goblets

A functional accessory is a special mount that is installed in the working chamber.

The holder ensures efficient rinsing and drying of glasses and glasses. In full-sized devices, 3-4 holders can be placed at the same time for washing 16 glasses and glasses. Narrow and compact devices can accommodate up to 2 holders.

Attention! The holders are designed for glasses and glasses up to 24 cm high and up to 10 cm in diameter.

High-quality holders are made of wear-resistant and safe food-grade polymer, resistant to aggressive household chemicals and high temperatures.

Dishwasher functions

Wash programs

In dishwashers, the choice of a suitable program is carried out taking into account the contamination of the dishes. Devices are loaded only after complete cleaning of food debris.

The main washing programs are standard, fast, intensive and delicate. They are designed for washing dishes with light, medium and heavy soiling.


The express program is intended for quick cleaning of dishes with a slight degree of soiling and when food remains have not dried up yet. The working cycle lasts up to half an hour at a temperature of 35-38 degrees.


Intensive mode is used when heavily soiled or with food remnants that have had time to dry. It is also used for cleaning frying pans, pots and other overall products.

Washing is carried out within 45–60 minutes at temperatures up to 70 degrees. Before choosing the intensive wash mode, you can additionally activate the soak function, which will speed up the process of removing dirt.


This mode is intended for processing fragile and sensitive materials (porcelain, crystal, glass), for sterilizing children’s accessories – jars and bottles. Gentle washing is carried out at a temperature of 40–45 degrees.


It is used for daily washing of medium and heavy soiling. It is performed at water temperatures up to 66 degrees. Some models provide for raising the water temperature to 73 degrees at the end of the washing process.

Operating modes of washing and their number

Devices are distinguished by the type of washing modes and a set of useful options. Modern models provide from 4 (minimum set) to 15 (standard and extended set) operating modes.

In budget models there is a minimum set of working programs, in devices of the middle and high price segments – standard and advanced.


Provides automatic selection of the appropriate washing program. To do this, it is enough to indicate the type of dishes and the degree of contamination. Some models have special sensors that allow you to automatically determine the degree of contamination without user intervention.


This mode provides for washing dishes with a low or medium degree of soiling without food residues. The washing process is carried out economically at a temperature of water heating up to 55 degrees.


A regime that involves the use of natural components of biological origin – enzymes that are part of ecological household chemicals for dishes. They are able to quickly and effectively dissolve fat and other types of deposits. BIO mode is carried out at a temperature of water heating up to 40 degrees.

BIO economical

The mode is similar to the previous one, it cleans from weak contaminants using natural household chemicals at a water temperature of up to 40 degrees.

Soak and rinse mode

This option allows you to soak or rinse in water heated to the desired temperature, without the use of household chemicals. You can use the rinse mode at any time, before the main wash.

3 in 1 mode

Efficient operating mode, which provides for the simultaneous use of three components for washing – household chemicals, rinse aid and salt to reduce water hardness.

It should be noted that the use of salt and rinse aid is an important condition for a quality wash. Otherwise, this leads to clogging of the water supply nozzles, which is fraught with a quick breakdown of the machine.

It is recommended to use the tools offered by the manufacturer of a particular device model. There are special 3 in 1 tablets on sale that combine the chemical components of all of the above products. These tablets are easy to use, but are expensive.

half load

A useful washing mode that allows you to load only one of the available baskets for placing dishes. This saves household chemicals, water and electricity.

A similar mode is provided for floor models with a capacity of 10-15 sets. With half load, the user can use the top or bottom basket with only half of the sets loaded.
For devices that do not have this mode, you can use the economical washing program.

Variable wash function

It allows you to significantly reduce water consumption, improving the quality of washing. When it is activated, two work processes are performed simultaneously in the machine – soaking dishes in one basket and active washing in the other.

Audible completion indicator

Sound notification after the end of the work program. This is true for fully embedded units that do not have an optional floor beam indicator.

Also, a similar function is implemented in expensive devices with a low noise level and quiet completion of work cycles. If necessary, the sound signal can be turned off in the settings.

Timer and program start delay time (minimum and maximum)

Washing can start at any time set by the user. The minimum launch time is from 60 to 180 minutes, taking into account the functionality of the model. The maximum time for which you can delay the start of the washing program is from 2 to 24 hours.

To set the required start delay time, dishwashers have a built-in timer.

Water transparency sensor

Designed to determine the degree of purity of water. The machine activates the sensor to determine the type of water, according to the set program and the number of sets of dishes.

With the help of a sensor, the device diagnoses the presence of dirt and detergent residues and performs rinsing of the dishes for the required number of cycles until the water is clear. This guarantees the high quality of the washing procedure.

Indicators: Presence of rinse aid and water softener salts

During dishwashing, the appliance is able to detect the presence of rinse aid and salt to reduce water hardness based on indicators.

When the rinse liquid is running out quickly, the device gives a signal with a light indicator.

The salt indicator performs a similar function to the special salt used to reduce the hardness level of tap water.

Floor beam projection indicator

The dishwasher has a special operating status indicator that projects a red beam onto the floor covering. It signals that the device is turned on and is executing a program, after which the beam turns green.

The indicator is of two types: a beam indicator and a light projection of time.

The indicator beam is provided in fully built-in models of devices, which are distinguished by low noise levels. Silent operation does not allow the user to timely determine the end of the washing program.

The indicator provides the necessary control: during the entire time of work, a colored beam is projected on the floor, which goes out after the end of the program.

Timelight projection also allows you to project the program data and end time onto the flooring.

Adjusting the degree of water hardness in automatic mode

Provides automatic determination of the degree of water hardness, to select the optimal consumption of softening salt. Expensive models are equipped with a similar function.

In budget options, the option is implemented manually, when the choice of salt consumption is carried out with a test kit that is included with the device.

Child lock function

It blocks the oven door or front panel controls to prevent children from accessing the appliance.

If in washing machines, after activating the start, the door is completely locked, then in dishwashers this rarely happens. In this case, the open door interrupts the set program until it is closed.

For those devices that do not have a security function, special locks for controls and doors can be purchased as an option.

When choosing dishwashers, it is important to take into account the functional features and layout of the room where it will be installed. Such a device must be equipped with reliable protection against power surges and leaks.

In order for the purchased equipment to serve for more than one year, you should follow the rules for operating and caring for it. Do not wash brass, pewter, wood or copper utensils in the machine. Household items such as napkins, towels, sponges and plastic items must not be loaded into the appliance.

The installation of the device is carried out in accordance with the established rules and recommendations of the manufacturer, at a distance of no more than 1.6 meters to the sewer drain.

When buying budget or elite models, close attention should be paid to the reliability and quality of the brand, the number of work programs, ease of use and degree of security.

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