Coarse water filter
Coarse filters (CSF) are such purification devices that purify the water entering the house from solid fractions – clay, lime, chlorine, rust, sand and other foreign components. CSF is traditionally installed in the water supply before entering the house, that is, before the meter and after the shut-off equipment.
How a coarse water filter works
The principle of operation of such devices is quite simple. The body of the product fixed on the water pipe contains a mesh element or cartridge. The flow of water following the water supply enters the filter.
Water is passed through a mesh or other medium capable of holding various solid particles. Purified water enters the system to the recipient and, if necessary, is subjected to fine purification.
Devices for rough water treatment differ from each other by the corresponding technical characteristics in the form of:
- maximum service life;
- types of filter blocks;
- material from which different types of devices are made.
Although the principle of operation of various CSF models is the same, they still differ from each other in a number of ways. Such devices differ from each other in their shape, design, type of filter element, method of cleaning from filtered dirt.
Types of coarse water filters
1. Strainer – one of the most popular types. Known for long service life without changing the working element. The latter, as the name implies, is a metal mesh with cells ranging in size from 50 to 400 microns. The material is stainless steel. The designs differ from each other in the way they are inserted into the pipeline, in the methods of regular cleaning and maintenance.
The type of mesh filters can be divided into two more subspecies. These are recognized as:
- CSF with backwash (removal of settled particles of sand and other elements is carried out automatically, that is, there is no need to remove the mechanism or perform other actions);
- CSF without flushing (these are mud tanks, the cleaning of which is possible only in the process of disassembling them).
Industrial or household mesh CSFs for cold water are supplied with a transparent case. This makes it possible to control the state of the grid.
Devices for hot water are made of metal, since this material is not afraid of high temperatures.
Most filter models also perform other functions. Thus, such a device can be equipped with a pressure regulating valve. The product can also be combined with a manometer. This can protect the inner surface of the pipeline and household appliances from pressure drops and water hammer.
The installation of backwash devices is allowed in cases where a drainage tube is available, into which dirty water with impurities is sent after cleaning. Backflushing devices have become popular because of their small size and because they do not require manual cleaning.
Thus, the advantages of mesh filters include:
- low cost;
- simple design;
- relative compactness;
- ease of installation and operation;
- cleaning both hot and cold water;
- rare replacement of the filter element.
Of the shortcomings, the obvious ones are:
- protect only from large fractions of pollution;
- frequent shutdown of water pressure in order to clean the mesh.
2. Flanged and coupling models differ in how they are connected to the water supply. With pipe diameters of two inches or more, coarse flanged models are more suitable. This applies to main water pipes or interchanges in the basements of high-rise buildings.
The connection of flanges on studs or bolts makes it possible to remove the device without dismantling other structural elements.
Devices on pipes are installed already at the design stage of the water supply network.
Threaded filters are cut into pipes of small diameter. This design is used in domestic conditions, when supplying water to a private house. The filter, depending on its design, is either screwed onto the pipe directly or connected to it using quick-release union nuts (“American”).
CSF water of any models are installed subject to some general rules. For this:
- before tie-in, it is necessary to clean the pipes from scale and corrosion, rinse to remove dirt, shut off cold and hot water supply;
- wind a teflon thread or other sealant on the thread of the filter cover. In the same way, the junction of the filter with the pipe is processed;
- position the filter element towards the bottom or apply an oblique inclined filter;
- to reduce mechanical stress, it is recommended to attach the device to the wall with a clamp.
All types of filters consist of inlet and outlet pipes, and a special tank (sump) that purifies water.
Depending on the location of this tank, the products are oblique and straight.
3.Direct filter contains a sump located vertically to the flow. It has a large size, as a result of which the cleaning quality is much improved. The water flow, passing through a large sump, slows down the speed, and this allows large particles of debris to sink to the bottom. After that, the water is filtered with a mesh that does not allow small suspended particles to pass through.
four.oblique filter has a noticeable difference – the sump is located at a certain angle to the water flow. It is used where it is impossible to install a direct filter due to the small space, that is, when the pipe passes very close to the plane of the wall or floor.
Settlers are closed with flange covers or screw plugs.
The mechanisms differ from each other and the cleaning method. Non-flushing filters are used – “mud collectors” and those equipped with a cleaning device:
- “mud collectors” – these include some of the oblique products and some straight ones, which are equipped with screw caps. In cases of obvious clogging, as well as during scheduled maintenance, the device is disassembled;
- the direct filter has a built-in drain valve for draining accumulated dirt and a cleaning tank using direct or reverse water flow.
5. Water supply devices use cartridge or as they are also called, cartridge filters. This is a wall-mounted structure containing a transparent or opaque flask.
Replaceable cartridges are placed inside the flask, which are the main components for rough cleaning.
The material for replaceable elements is compressed polypropylene fiber or twisted thread, or polyester. They do not have the same filtering capacity, however, coarse mechanical cleaning is usually carried out with cartridges of 20-30 microns.
Frequent replacement of cartridges seems to be a feature of using this type of device. Cartridges are used in systems where too small suspension particles are found that are difficult to capture by mesh devices.
The cartridge is designed specifically to retain small particles and debris. Cartridge structures are mounted in conditions of weak flows. For strong flows, such a device is already needed in a large size, which is more expensive.
Cartridges effectively remove mechanical particles and other impurities. With the help of a fibrous, carbon-treated cartridge, the water is purified from chlorine.
In addition, if you choose a stocking-type device, you can clean fibrous formations (algae, mud), viscous clay. An excess of such contaminants clogs the duct and leads to the breakdown of expensive products designed to remove molecular impurities.
Clogged elements cannot be cleaned by flushing. They need to be changed.
However, there are cartridges on the market that are a metal mesh. Such a cartridge can be cleaned when clogged.
6. In cases where pollution occurs in the form of insoluble heterogeneous impurities in large quantities in water, apply high-speed pressure devices consisting of a container-column with anti-corrosion material.
The filter element is placed inside the housing. The upper part of the device contains a block that automates the hydro-cleaning process. The liquid flowing through such a design reaches a high degree of purification – up to 30 microns.
It should be emphasized that such products are not without drawbacks. These include:
- impressive size;
- the need for placement in heated rooms;
- obligatory auxiliary drainage pipeline for regeneration.
Installation and maintenance
Such mechanisms should be installed and maintained in accordance with the following rules. For correct installation:
- it is more expedient to install in front of the counter. In practice, there is not enough space for this, so an oblique model is used – it is able to protect the mechanism from clogging with suspended particles and prevent damage to the meter;
- to install an oblique structure, a horizontally located pipe is chosen. In this case, the flask, to facilitate the washing process, is placed at the bottom. It is important to know in which direction the water flow is directed. An arrow indicating the direction is marked on the body of the mechanism. Installation of an oblique filter is also possible on a vertical section of the water supply, but the water flow must flow from top to bottom. It should be noted that if such a model is installed even with the sump up, then pollution will not get into the system, however, this increases the risk of breakdown of the mechanism due to the fact that the dirt deposited in the sump will not allow the faucet to be opened;
- a direct filter is mounted exclusively on a horizontal section of the water supply. Be sure to leave a place needed to remove the flask, if it is supposed to;
- CSF, which has a forward flushing device, is additionally equipped with a backwashing device. This is done by installing a bypass water supply loop with several taps that are able to switch the fluid flow in the pipeline to the opposite one.
A couple of times during operation, you will have to resort to disassembling the device to clean and replace the mesh, or cartridge. More often this has to be done with “mud collectors” that do not have a flushing device.
Before you start disassembling the device, you should remove the pressure in the line by interrupting the water supply. The oblique filters are equipped with plugs with hexagon caps for a wrench. It is recommended to replace the paranitic pad with tow winding. This will increase the tightness of the connection and facilitate the further functionality of the device.
For vertically mounted straight filters, the flask can be removed with a wrench or a special curly wrench. Reassembly, if necessary, is carried out with the replacement of rubber or silicone sealed gaskets.
The dirt accumulated in the disassembled oblique filter is poured out of the tank into a container. The mesh is removed, the dirt is cleaned off and blown with a stream of compressed air. Damaged mesh should be replaced.
For straight type tanks, it is required to unscrew the flask and pour out the precipitate from it. The grid is also washed and blown, or a new replacement cartridge is installed.
It is much easier to maintain products with a flushing device. To do this, it is sometimes necessary to open the tap at the bottom of the flask, and flush the grid and the flask with a stream of water under pressure. Water is directed to the drainage pipe or a container is placed under it.
Even better, if a backwash device is mounted on the water supply. In this case, the water is directed in the opposite direction, as a result of which the mesh is cleaned much better.
Rough cleaning does not solve all the problems of obtaining high-quality drinking water. Therefore, the considered devices can be considered only as part of a general system for obtaining purified drinking water.
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