8 types of weather stations
A home weather station is a universal wall or table device that determines the state of the indoor microclimate and the weather conditions outside.
The practicality of the weather station lies in its multifunctionality:
- Measurement of air temperature and humidity inside and outside the premises.
- Control over the internal microclimate.
- Formation of weather forecast for a day or more.
- Pressure measurement.
- Function of an alarm clock, calendar, hours.
- Formation of indications of the strength and direction of the wind, the level of precipitation.
- Sunset and sunrise time display.
Digital weather station with barometer
Types of weather stations with and without barometer:
Household analog stations consist of mechanical devices and elements. They include meters that determine temperature, pressure, air humidity, some models have a built-in chronometer.
The body of these stations is made in a classic style from natural materials (stone, wood, metal).
Digital weather stations (electronic) are portable devices that record data on weather and climate conditions using electronic sensors.
They are equipped with a liquid crystal screen, which displays the temperature at a particular point in time, the level of air humidity, pressure, and the forecast for the near future.
Some models are equipped with indicators for predicting magnetic storms, determine the level of solar activity, the phases of the moon, they have a clock and a calendar. The device works from the electric network or independently from accumulators.
Some models work from two sources. The digital meteorological installation, in addition to the barometer, thermometer, hygrometer, includes additional devices:
- anemometer and weather vane measuring wind direction and speed;
- rain gauge: determines the amount of precipitation;
- calendar, alarm clock, clock, etc.
- USB – output for data transfer to a personal computer.
Household weather stations with a barometer are necessary for people suffering from changes in blood pressure or vegetative-vascular diseases. Built-in barometers in mechanical instruments are divided into mercury and pointer.
The pointer device is called an aneroid barometer. It has two arrows – one shows the actual pressure, the second is moved by the user to the position of the previous measurement reading.
The weather forecast for the next five or six hours is determined based on the dynamics of changes in the position of the hand compared to the previous value.
The downside of mercury barometers is that, unlike pointer barometers, it is difficult to calculate the dynamics of pressure changes using them. There are mechanical meteorological units with a barometer that display information about weather conditions for hunting or fishing.
Digital devices show the value of atmospheric pressure with less accuracy than mechanical ones. A more important indicator of weather forecasting for them is the dynamics of pressure rise and fall. Indicators range from 195 to 1080 millimeters of mercury.
A digital thermometer is a small indoor device with a liquid crystal display that displays information about the temperature in the room and outside. Thermometers without sensors are only used to measure room temperature.
The advantages of room digital thermometers are compactness and cheap cost, and the disadvantages are low information content and insufficient functionality.
The simplest mechanical devices are alcohol thermometers, which determine the air temperature in a specific place and at a specific time. They have the best response time to temperature changes, but the appearance is not always attractive as a design element.
In addition to alcohol, there are pointer (mechanical) thermometers on a bimetallic spiral, and mercury. Mechanical thermometers are susceptible to temperature changes due to the sensitive spiral sensor, and have an attractive appearance suitable for any interior.
Temperature measurement is the main function of electronic meteorological installations. The working element is a thermocouple (or resistor) made of metal or platinum wire.
The microchip in the device determines the dependence of the resistance of the thermocouple and the resistor on temperature, on the basis of which the readings of the ambient temperature are built. The range of temperatures measured by the weather sensors varies from +50 to -70 degrees.
Digital thermometers store minimum and maximum temperatures.
There are mini-weather stations, consisting of a thermometer and a barometer, or a thermometer and a clock, and performing a reduced number of functions. As a rule, they are able to measure temperature and humidity.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of mini-weather stations are smaller dimensions and weight, which are important when wall-mounted. Minus – less accurate measurement readings.
Advantages of analog (mechanical) weather stations:
- Accuracy of indications and measurements.
- Attractive appearance that can fit into the classic interior of the living space.
- Longer service life compared to digital devices.
This is due to the lack of power sources, as well as the fact that the mechanical weather observation device is in a one-piece shockproof case, not exposed to moisture, direct sunlight and low temperatures.
Additionally, the service life is increased due to the fact that mechanical stations are used mainly indoors.
- No installation required, the device is easy to use.
Disadvantages of mechanical weather stations:
- Small functionality – only a thermometer, barometer and hygrometer can be built into the device.
- Mechanical installations are heavy in weight.
- High price due to the materials used for the manufacture of the case.
Advantages of digital weather stations:
- A significant set of functions for an adequate assessment of meteorological conditions and weather forecasting.
- Remote controllers analyze weather data from different points of view to create the most accurate picture.
- Stylish and modern design.
- The compactness of the device.
Disadvantages of digital weather stations:
- Mandatory power supply.
- Incorrect installation of external sensors leads to the transmission of distorted data.
- The budget version of the device is not able to display information about weather conditions as accurately as possible.
The hygrometer as part of mechanical weather stations measures the level of humidity in the room, so it is an important part of the device to ensure the well-being of a person and create a comfortable microclimate.
By changing the level of humidity in the room, you can improve your health and cure some diseases, for example, get rid of a long dry cough.
To measure humidity, thermohygrometers use a hydrophobic material that changes size with increasing and decreasing levels of air humidity, acting similarly to a thermometer.
Digital thermohygrometers are able to determine the parameters of comfort (dew point, trends in parameters) in a room for a person.
To control the well-being of weather-sensitive people, at least two devices are required – a thermometer and a hygrometer, so a conventional household device for measuring the level of humidity is not suitable for this purpose.
The thermohygrometer is able to comprehensively measure and analyze humidity indicators to create a comfortable microclimate, the range of which varies from 0 to 100%.
Thermometers with sensors
Digital meteorological installations have built-in or remote sensors that are attached to the outside of the window.
Built-in devices are built into the base of the station to measure the temperature inside the room.
Simple models of weather stations with sensors are digital thermometers. The purpose of such devices is exclusively temperature measurement, which is carried out using an external temperature sensor.
A remote sensor is an external device that takes readings outside a window or in an adjacent room. Remote sensors of meteorological installations are divided into two types: wired and wireless.
Wired sensors are compact, operate without an additional power source, they provide uninterrupted communication. The disadvantage is the length of the wire with a length of two to three meters, which can become a limitation during installation.
Weather stations with sensors, in addition to the main ones, are capable of performing a lot of other useful functions:
- Determine the level of comfort of the microclimate in the room for a person.
- Display warnings about the occurrence of ice on the street.
- Set the noise level outdoors or indoors, measure the level of carbon dioxide in the air.
- The light sensor informs about the level of light and ultraviolet rays.
The remote sensor of some models is protected by a special housing from rain and snow. When choosing a weather station, it is recommended to take this fact into account.
When installing a remote sensor outdoors, it is also not recommended to place it in areas subject to constant exposure to direct sunlight.
Digital weather station with wireless sensors
Wireless sensors transmit data to the base using a radio signal. Remote wireless sensors of digital weather systems are easy to install and are installed at a sufficiently large distance from the base station.
The disadvantage is the need for an autonomous power source, which is limited in performance at sub-zero air temperatures, since the batteries stop working at -30 C.
The basic installation is capable of receiving a sensor signal at a distance of up to 300 meters. When calculating the signal reception range, interference in the form of partitions, furniture and other possible obstacles is not taken into account.
Depending on the station model, one or more outdoor sensors are used to analyze weather phenomena. The complete set of weather stations, as a rule, is equipped with one sensor, but the maximum number is not limited.
The signal sending interval from the sensor varies from 5 seconds to 5 minutes. It is recommended to select models with the smallest interval score that guarantees accurate and reliable data.
Advantages of wired sensors:
- There is no additional power supply.
- Generate valid data.
- Reliability of fastening outside the room.
- Placement restrictions due to wire length.
- When installing a device with a wired sensor, you will need to drill holes in a window or wall. Another option is to install the sensor on the window sill as close to the window as possible, but in this case, the readings of the weather station may be unreliable.
- Difficulties with placing wired sensors in an amount of more than one.
Advantages of wireless sensors:
- Ease of placement at a remote distance from the base station.
- Formation of reliable data.
- Convenient installation – it is required to place the sensor outdoors at a height of two meters above the ground within the range of the signal from the base installation.
Difficulties with installation do not arise due to the fact that in order to collect the most accurate information about weather conditions, it is required to place several sensors in various places outside the room.
- high quality transmission signal.
- Availability of an additional power supply with limited operating conditions.
- When choosing a small signal range, there may be interruptions in reception due to obstacles in the form of furniture, thick concrete walls, and others.
- More expensive than wired ones.
Digital weather station with weather forecast
With the help of a meteorological installation, you can assess the weather conditions at a particular moment and generate a forecast for the next six to twelve hours. The basis for forecasting is the data that was recorded and stored for the previous few days.
Based on previously collected information and pressure readings, temperature values and precipitation are predicted. The weather calculation algorithm affects the accuracy of the readings.
For an accurate forecast, outdoor sensors must be installed correctly, protected from direct sunlight and precipitation.
The more indicators (temperature, pressure, wind strength and direction, amount of precipitation, etc.) are involved in the calculation of weather data, the more accurate the forecast will be.
The digital instrument shows on the display:
- relative humidity of the atmosphere;
- air temperature;
- if there is a calendar in the device – the current date, day of the week;
- if there is a clock – time;
- other necessary information depending on the functions of the instrument.
When using the weather forecasting function, it is recommended to select models that automatically download weather data from the Internet.
Using the received information and its own data, the weather installation will calculate the weather forecast with the highest probability. To make a weather forecast, the device must have a temperature storage function.
On some models, you can program a color scale for upcoming weather conditions, according to which the color of the screen notifies you of clear weather or precipitation.
Weather stations with symbolic display
According to the method of displaying information on the display of the weather station, there are two types:
- Digital display – the received data is displayed on the display in the form of digital information about temperature, wind speed, etc. It is typical for low-functional devices, for example, digital thermometers.
- Numeric and symbolic. The graphical display of weather conditions involves the induction of weather data in the form of graphic images.
Weather information appears on the screen as symbols: clear weather as a sun icon, rainy weather as drops, cloudy weather as clouds, snowfall as snowflakes, night time as a month icon, etc. This display method is more informative than digital.
Some models are equipped with an animated character display that displays weather and upcoming forecast data as moving objects.
The dynamics of changes in temperature or pressure is often displayed on the display of electronic devices in the form of graphs.
The symbolic display of data on the screen of the weather station is easy to perceive information compared to digital. Graphic symbols are more visible on the screen, which allows you to see the necessary information without getting closer to the device.
The image on the display is color and monochrome, depending on the model of the weather control device. Modern devices are equipped with the transmission of a three-dimensional weather forecast by highlighting crystals that indicate a certain state.
Some models are equipped with the ability to change the color of the display depending on the weather conditions outside. Thanks to this, the information is easily recognized without having to read the information on the screen.
The weather station with clock is a multifunctional device that allows you to predict weather conditions and find out the time. There are wall and desktop types of thermometers with clocks.
Mechanical installation with a clock is a useful and practical thing in the house. As a rule, analogue type models with clocks are combined with a thermometer and a barometer in a single housing.
Digital weather stations are equipped with both conventional chronometers and projection ones: at night, the clock is projected onto an opaque surface of the room. Time, date and temperature change each other on projections, alternating in a certain order.
The clock of the device is automatically synchronized with radio signals of the exact time or manually using the controls on the case.
The projected clock is easy to use and visible from anywhere in the room, especially at night. Clock installations are equipped with an alarm clock, and more often two independent alarm clocks.
The first one is triggered at the specified time on weekdays, the second one – according to the user’s settings. The time format on the device is set to 12 or 24 hours.
Thermometers with a clock automatically change the device to winter and summer time.
Combining a thermometer with a calendar helps you plan important events, which the device will remind you of with a sound alert.
- Photo frame weather control device. A drive with photographs is inserted into the USB connector, which are displayed on the device’s display in a user-defined period of time. A practical solution as a gift.
- Lunar and solar calendar – allows you to monitor the phases of the moon and sun. The lunar calendar shows the phase of the moon at the moment, the history of phase changes, the strength of the ebb and flow.
- Zodiac calendar.
- Adjustment of parameters and functions by remote control, radio control or PC. Modern models are controlled using a smartphone.
- Synchronization with a tablet, smartphone and other gadgets for independent weather forecasting, tracking the dynamics of changes in humidity, temperature or pressure.
- Charging the battery with solar panels.
- Built-in digital compass.
- Function of wireless charging of mobile phones and tablets.
- Wifi connection.
- Sound alerts for exceeding or lowering the level of comfortable temperature, humidity or pressure.
- Light indication of the screen.
- Combination of weather installation with a radio receiver.
- Combination of a meteorological station with a radiotelephone.
- With the help of built-in motion sensors, the backlight of the display is controlled in a non-contact way, with gestures.
- The function of measuring soil moisture and displaying in the form of a graph.
- Storm warning function.
Allocate home, semi-professional and professional devices. Home devices are used for data collection and measurements in a small area.
This option differs from the professional one in that it is a ready-made device with pre-installed sensors, designed for operation by an ordinary user. Such a device cannot be modified and does not display one hundred percent, accurate indicators.
Semi-professional types of weather control devices can be modified to a limited extent by installing software, modules, their cost is more expensive.
Professional models have an extended range of functions and measurement range, covering an area with a radius of up to 100 meters and making the most accurate measurements. They are easy to modify for any custom setting.
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