Diapers are an intimate hygiene item, the main function of which is to absorb urine and liquid feces.

This type of underwear is used by astronauts, divers, bedridden patients, incontinent adults and children who have not learned to control urination.

Types of diapers


There is a huge variety of diapers. Moisture-absorbing products can be divided by type, purpose and method of use.

Classification by type

Disposable diapers


The outer side of the product is made of polyester or propylene. Fixation on the hips is due to reusable nylon Velcro or elastic band.

The combination of rubber, polyurethane and synthetic materials add elasticity to the diaper, which guarantees a comfortable fit.

Inside the disposable underwear is an absorbent three-layer construction:

  • The first layer adheres to the skin, so it is hypoallergenic, soft and pleasant to the touch. The main property of the layer is to pass liquid in one direction. According to GOST, the soaking time is less than 3 seconds.
  • The second layer consists of absorbent material. Its task is to convert loose stools and urine into a gel, so the composition includes superabsorbent crystals and a mixture of cellulose.

Superabsorbent is a polyacrylic polymer (polyacrylate) with a high molecular weight, due to which it swells quickly and perfectly absorbs moisture. The ratio of polymer to cellulose affects the quality of the diaper.

The less cellulose in the layer, the greater the amount of superabsorbent, and therefore the absorption of liquid is better.

  • The third layer protects against leaks. It is made from a dense but breathable material.

To stand out in the market, brands use interesting additions to disposable diapers: bleaches, emollient lotions and pleasantly smelling fragrances. In some models, the elastic bands around the legs are covered with waterproof polypropylene.

Reusable nappies


A good alternative to disposable diapers is reusable absorbent underwear. This product is biodegradable and will pollute soil and groundwater to a lesser extent after disposal.

Since reusable products are made on a fabric basis, they can be washed as standard items. They dry quickly, so you can use the same diaper two to three times a day. Fixation on the hips occurs with the help of buttons, ties or buttons.

Reusable diapers consist of two layers:

  • The inner lining should be waterproof, but still breathable. Made from laminated natural fabrics or laminated polyester.

For example, bamboo, microfiber, microfleece, velor or PUL.

The material is considered “breathable”, as it has a porous structure and allows air to pass through.

  • The outer layer helps keep skin dry by wicking moisture away to the main absorbent element (liner). For the manufacture of the absorbent layer, a synthetic hypoallergenic or natural fabric is used.

There is a special pocket in the reusable absorbent underwear, it is designed for moisture-absorbing liners. They include gauze, microfiber and bamboo layers.

After washing, the liners take a long time to dry (approximately 16 hours), so they cannot be used several times a day.

Trademarks also produce shorts or panties, usually made of wool. Products are designed for reliable fixation and snug fit of the absorbent element.

Types of absorbent underwear

Types of absorbent underwear

Depending on the appearance and functional features, absorbent underwear is divided into 4 types:

  • Diapers. This is a classic type of absorbent underwear. Outwardly, they look like tight shorts, but fixation on the hips occurs with the help of Velcro fasteners, buttons or buttons, so it is convenient to put them on and take them off while lying down.
  • Absorbent panties. This type has no additional fasteners, except for the elastic band on the hips. Worn like normal underwear. When removing, you need to break the side elements.

Panties adhere to the skin more tightly than diapers, so they can cause irritation or redness.

  • For swimming. This unusual underwear is designed specifically for use in ponds or pools. Elastic waistband and around the legs provide a snug fit to keep water out and urine out.

These diapers are made of a special material that does not swell when liquid enters. There are reusable and disposable models for bathing. Products for single use are thin, hypoallergenic and odorless.

Reusable have a top layer that does not swell when in contact with water. The material is soft and lightweight, helping to glide through the water, making it easier to swim. Inside the diaper there is a moisture-absorbing liner, which is easy to replace if necessary.

Panties adhere to the skin more tightly than diapers, so they can cause irritation or redness.

  • Absorbent diapers. These are absorbent sheets that guarantee dryness and comfort, they reliably retain liquid and fight against unpleasant odors.

Products are not only rectangular in shape, but also with wings that are tucked under the mattress and create a secure fit. Like any disposable underwear, diapers have three layers.

The top layer is a soft material that allows air to pass through and absorbs liquid efficiently, protecting the skin from irritation, redness, itching and bedsores. The inner layer is identical in composition to the absorbent filler of disposable diapers.

The bottom layer is made of non-toxic polyethylene and prevents leakage, therefore protecting bed linen from contamination.

Classification by purpose



Baby diapers labeled “unisex” on the pack are suitable for boys and girls. In such diapers, the absorbent is distributed evenly, and on the top layer there are bright pictures for babies of both sexes.

Girls diapers

For girls

This model differs from the rest in that the superabsorbent is located in the middle under the girls’ genitals, which contributes to the instant absorption of the liquid. On the outside there are drawings of princesses, dolls and flowers.

Boys diapers

For boys

The absorbent layer in this product is located at the front, so the boys’ natural secretions are absorbed in seconds. On the front and back of the diaper, bright pictures depict cars, robots and cartoon characters.

Teen diapers

For teenagers

This type of absorbent underwear is designed for children and adolescents with disabilities in the age category from 3 to 15 years.

They provide a high level of absorption of urine and liquid feces (up to 1500 ml), since the width of the absorbent layer is at least 15 cm. The diameter of the belt is usually 50-60 cm, there are still 4 Velcro fasteners.

Adult diapers

For adults

These products are designed for people over 15 years of age who are incontinent or bedridden. They are highly absorbent. The maximum size is up to 150 cm at the waist. Even for adult care, disposable absorbent diapers are used.





Each manufacturer of baby diapers on the packages indicate the size, based on the weight of the child. For brands, the ratio of size tables is individual, below are the average values:

  • Size No. 1 is intended for children weighing up to 5 kg – this category includes babies up to two months.
  • No. 2, weight 3-7 kg – up to 4 months.
  • No. 3, 4-9 kg – from 3 to 12 months.
  • No. 4, 10-18 kg – from 7 to 18 months.
  • No. 5, 12-20 kg – from one to two years.
  • No. 6, 15-25 kg – from one and a half years.

Absorbent underwear with the first size has a cutout on the top edge so that the diaper strap does not irritate the umbilical wound in newborns. Many manufacturers have created models for premature babies weighing up to 3 kg – as a rule, this is size No. 0.

For adults and teenagers

For teenagers and adults

The size range of adult and teenage models depends on the waist size:

  • XS – 40-60 cm;
  • S – 50-70 cm;
  • M – 60-100 cm;
  • L – 90-120 cm;
  • XL – 100-130 cm;
  • XXL – 120-150 cm.

For the convenience of users, each manufacturer produces packages with a different number of diapers (from 10 to 150 pcs.).

Reusable diapers


The size of disposable diapers is always standard:

  • 40×60 cm;
  • 60×60 cm;
  • 60×90 cm.




The degree of absorbency of diapers depends on the size range: the larger the size of the diaper, the more liquid it absorbs:

  • Linen up to 5 kg absorbs 515-625 ml;
  • 4-9 kg – 787 ml;
  • 10-18 kg – 931-1005 ml;
  • 12-20 kg – 1068 ml;
  • 15-25 kg – up to 1500 ml.

Teenagers and adults

Teenagers and adults

On packages for adults and adolescents, the absorption level is indicated in milliliters or the number of “droplets”. Adult diapers absorb from 750 ml to 3 liters of moisture.

Each manufacturer has its own ratio of “droplets” and milliliters, but in most cases there is a summary table on the package, thanks to which you can easily determine the amount of absorbed liquid.

Degree of absorbency according to the size:

  • XS and S – 800-1800 ml;
  • M – 1000-3600 ml;
  • L – 1100-4100 ml;
  • XL – 1500-3300 ml.



The absorbency of disposable absorbent diapers depends on the size:

  • 40 × 60 cm – 250-750 ml;
  • 60 × 60 cm – 350-2100 ml;
  • 90 × 60 cm – 650-1550 ml.


Pros of disposable diapers

Pros of disposable diapers

  • Security. The product is made of environmentally friendly and safe for human health materials. Fights leakage and moisture on the skin, providing a comfortable stay in the diaper.
  • Efficiency. They successfully cope with their main task – the absorption of liquid.
  • Ease of use. The diaper and absorbent panties are easy to put on and take off. The fresh product has a minimum volume, so it practically does not stand out under clothes.
  • Free time. Thanks to these products, there is no need to waste your free time on washing and ironing.

Advantages of reusable diapers

Advantages of reusable diapers

  • Universal size. Most of these products do not have a size, so they are ideal for both newborns and three-year-old children. The size of diapers for newborns is adjustable with buttons, buttons and Velcro fasteners, which is convenient if there are several children in the family.
  • Price. A set of reusable absorbent underwear is more expensive than disposable diapers. But the purchase pays off after 2-3 months of using the product, because this is a one-time purchase.

That is, there is no need to buy new absorbent underwear every month, especially since, with proper care, reusable underwear can last up to 3 years.

  • No contraindications. The product is completely safe and hypoallergenic. It can be used for diaper rash, dermatitis and fever. Natural fabrics are breathable and do not cause irritation or allergies on the skin.
  • Control of urination. In such models, it is easy to track the number and time of bowel movements, which helps to quickly accustom the baby to the potty or track urination disorders in an adult.



Despite all the obvious advantages, absorbent underwear has its drawbacks.

Cons of disposable diapers

Cons of disposable diapers

  • Skin irritation. A used diaper creates a moist environment that is irritating to the skin. Allergies and diaper dermatitis appear due to various flavors and fragrances with chemical constituents.

Therefore, it is necessary to change diapers on time.

  • Price. Since absorbent disposable underwear needs to be changed regularly, you will have to constantly buy such products. Using diapers in the middle price category, you will have to spend about 40 thousand rubles during the year.
  • Harm to the environment. Disposable absorbent underwear takes several hundred years to decompose, and given the volume of use of the product, the environmental impact is enormous.
  • Inability to control urination. There is no way to track the number, frequency and color of bowel movements and urination.

Disadvantages of reusable diapers

Disadvantages of reusable diapers

  • Price. Despite the quick payback of the product, the first purchase will be quite expensive. Reusable products are bulkier than disposables, which means that you will need to purchase clothes one size larger.
  • Appropriate care. Reusable products require constant washing, ironing and disinfection.
  • Not effective enough. Doesn’t absorb as quickly as disposable products.
  • Frequent replacement. Reusable absorbent underwear needs to be changed after each urination, which leads to inconvenience when traveling or walking, especially during the cold season.
  • The size. Not suitable for newborns, as there is no right size. Despite adjustable buttons, Velcro and buttons, underwear on small children will leak. This can be fixed using a strap or ties.

How to choose

How to choose

Choosing the right diapers is a very responsible process, so you need to pay attention to the following indicators:

  • The inner layer should be soft and delicate, like cotton, because it is adjacent to the sensitive skin of a person. It should reliably absorb, but not pass moisture back.
  • The middle layer of the diaper should instantly conduct and distribute liquid over the entire surface, without accumulating in one place. This is very important, otherwise a lump will form between the legs, which causes a lot of inconvenience to the user.
  • The elastic around the legs should be tight and elastic. Its main function is to prevent liquid feces from flowing out, as it is absorbed more slowly than urine.

If this element is chosen incorrectly, the following problems may occur: liquid leakage on the sides, incomplete leg circumference or strong pinching, which leads to skin irritation.

  • The outer layer should be porous, but not leak liquid.
  • Clasps. They are disposable and reusable. It is better to choose retainers for repeated use, this will allow you to fasten and unfasten the same diaper several times.
  • The size. When choosing this hygiene product, you need to be able to choose the right size so that the product fits snugly around the stomach and does not squeeze anything.

Although the weight of the baby is indicated on children’s models, it is worth considering that the proportions of each child are individual. With the same body weight, there can be completely different heights, and, accordingly, the volumes of the abdomen and hips.

Therefore, if the child is overweight, then it is better to choose a slightly larger size, and if a thin physique, then a smaller one.

How to choose

When choosing a size for a teenager or adult, you need to correctly measure the volume of the abdomen. This is best done with a measuring tape in a supine position along the most prominent areas of the abdomen, and not along the waistline.

When choosing a new brand or purchasing diapers for the first time, you do not need to take the largest package. It is better to take with a minimum amount, and if you liked this brand, then buy it for future use.

Which diapers are best

Which is better

A good diaper should have the following characteristics:

  • instantly absorb;
  • do not leak and hold the liquid securely;
  • do not cause irritation on the skin;
  • have reusable fasteners with a strong fixation;
  • no synthetic fragrances;
  • first layer of cellulose or soft cotton, free of pesticides and herbicides;
  • for newborns, a cutout for the navel is mandatory;
  • free of latex and polyethylene;
  • constantly pass air;
  • filling indicator – one two or three strips on the outer layer of the product, which change color during the first urination;
  • panties with seams on the outside.

How to use diapers


Step by step instructions on how to properly put on a diaper:

  1. You need to unfold the diaper on the bed or changing table and straighten each crease.
  2. The skin must be dry and clean.
  3. In order to put on a diaper for a child, you need to raise your legs with one hand, and with the other put the lower part with Velcro under the buttocks. If you put on a bedridden patient, then the person should be put on his side and then put on the product.
  4. Insert the front part of the diaper between the legs and pull it towards you, and then attach it to the stomach.
  5. Secure the product with fasteners. In this case, the trademark emblem depicted on the front of the diaper should be in the middle, for this the Velcro should be symmetrically fixed.
  6. Straighten each frill and pleats along the sides and between the legs.

It is necessary to change absorbent underwear before and after a night’s sleep, as well as every 3-4 hours during the day and after a bowel movement.

Caring for a reusable diaper

Caring for a reusable diaper

In order for a reusable product to serve for a long time, you need to properly care for it:

  • Wash on gentle cycle or by hand before first use.
  • Do not use fabric softener when rinsing diapers, as it can leave a waxy residue or flatten fabric fibers on the inside layer, which will reduce absorbency and ruin the water repellency of the material.
  • Rinse the product thoroughly, the remaining powder can lead to allergic reactions.
  • Do not iron.
  • Do not use bleaches containing chlorine, they will destroy the structure of the fabric.

Diaper manufacturers



The Japanese brand specializes in the production of absorbent disposable baby underwear and wet wipes. The products are of high quality and belong to the premium class. Each package contains information in Russian.

Goo.N make diapers for babies weighing 1.8-3 kg in packs of 36. The model has reusable Velcro fasteners that are attached to the entire surface of the diaper.

This allows you to ensure a secure fit and protect against leakage. The bottom layer of the product is made of soft and delicate material, dots are pressed into it so that the liquid is completely absorbed and distributed inside the product.

Moisture absorption indicator on diapers for premature and newborn babies makes the use of the product easy and comfortable.

Absorbent underwear for children weighing at least four kilograms has 14 design options for the belt. These are bright drawings with animals that live in forests, trails or marine environments. AT Goo.N products do not use perfumes or fragrances.

Helen Harper

Helen Harper

The trade Belgian brand produces disposable absorbent hygiene products for children and adults. Especially for babies, the company has developed diapers, panties and swimwear that completely repeat the anatomy of the human body.

Aloe vera extract, which is part of the materials, nourishes the skin and eliminates unpleasant odors.

Also, manufacturers took care of bedridden patients and adults suffering from incontinence of any degree. They produce not only diapers, but also sanitary pads for every day.

Absorbent underwear has two sizes: large (large) and medium (medium). They are equipped with a filling indicator and an antibacterial system that protects against unpleasant odors and the growth of bacteria.



A distinctive feature of the brand is the design with Disney cartoon characters. Huggies products are free of fragrances and fragrance additives.

  • Elite Soft models are designed for newborns and children weighing no more than 22 kg. The inner surface is made of natural cotton with special pads for better absorption.

In addition to the filling indicator, the model has a special pocket that prevents loose stools from flowing out.

  • The Ultra Comfort line is divided into two models: for boys and for girls. They differ in the location of the absorbent material and patterns.
  • On the unisex Classic series, the heroes of the animated film “The Lion King” are located.
  • Disposable panties are designed for children up to 22 kg and are distinguished by designer drawings: for girls – princesses, for boys – characters from the cartoon “Cars”.
  • A special line of DryNites panties has two sizes: 17-30 kg (4-7 years) and 27-57 kg (8-15 years).



The company produces absorbent underwear for children in factories in Sweden and France. Reusable Velcro perform not only its main function – fixation, but also suggest when it’s time to switch to a larger size.

When they stop attaching to the blue zone of the belt, then the baby has grown out of this size range.

For newborns and premature babies, the Newborn line has been developed. To prevent dermatitis and diaper rash, the outer layer consists of a large number of small holes, which improves the passage of air and makes the material breathable.

Especially for little fashionistas and fashionistas, Libero designers have created a collection of disposable absorbent panties Up&Go Zoo Collection. Each pack contains 6 vibrant animal print options.

And the adhesive tape on each product will help to fold the used panties compactly and neatly.

The company also produces disposable swimpants for swimming. They meet all the requirements – they do not swell in water and perfectly absorb urine.



The Japanese brand presents disposable panties, diapers and wet wipes on the Russian market. Merries representatives have developed and patented a thin fabric that is used in all three layers of underwear and breathable.

This allows the diapers to remain “breathable” even with the absorbent already filled. Products belong to the premium class.

The absorbent linen is supplied with the indicator of humidity. If the stripes on the outer surface turn blue, this means that it is time to change the linen.

For children weighing 12-22 kg, the company has released night panties, they absorb a larger amount of liquid, since they have two absorbent layers. And triple frills around the legs reliably protect against leakage.

In models for newborn babies, there is no elastic band on the belt, so there will be no redness and irritation from rubbing on the delicate skin of the baby. For older babies, the belt is made of porous material, so the baby’s lower back will not sweat.



The brand was the first to produce diapers, so absorbent underwear is also called diapers. Specialists do not use paint when applying beautiful patterns to the top layer of the product.

It is replaced with pigments that are used in the production of contact lenses, so they are absolutely safe for children’s skin and do not cause allergies. In small quantities, a fragrance with a light aroma is added to each product.

The company’s products are adapted to each age category of the child:

  • New Baby – a series of underwear for the smallest, easily absorbs liquid feces.
  • Pampers of the Active Baby and Sleep&Play series are intended for children from three months.

This model range has two Super Dry absorbent layers: the first one instantly absorbs liquid and does not allow it to go back, and the gel-like second layer binds and distributes moisture inside the product.


  • The Premium Care series has a wide size range (1-18 kg). The inner surface is very soft, delicate and airy. Products for newborns have a special cutout for the navel, and models for older babies have a moisture indicator.

Unique channels absorb and evenly distribute moisture inside the diaper.

  • In packaging marked “Flex”, the Velcro fasteners stretch, which helps the diapers not hinder movement and do not rub the baby’s waist area.

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