It is difficult to screw the socket, assemble the shelf, install the bracket if there is no screwdriver at hand. There are no universal models, despite the loud statements of manufacturers, so choosing the right tool is not easy.

Screwdriver devicePrinciple of operation

The principle of operation of a screwdriver is based on its design, consisting of a handle, a rod and a tip. The depth and width of the holes into which screws or self-tapping screws are screwed differ for different surfaces and workpieces.

Therefore, the purpose of the tool determines its shape and dimensions of the tool.

Screwdriver details:

  • Rod — allows you to choose a screwdriver for the parameters of the upcoming work. The longer it is, the greater the depth of the workpiece is available to it.

At the same time, in narrow and hard-to-reach places, a long rod is a disadvantage, since it does not allow the tool to be inserted correctly.

  • Tip or slot — the working part of the screwdriver, located at the tip of the rod. The shape of the slot is combined with the risks on the head of the screws. If self-tapping screws are equipped with cross-shaped risks, then screws have much more shape variations.

Under each of them is an individual slot.

  • Pen — provides ease of use of the tool. There are also additional functions related to ergonomics and indication.

Principle of operation

The assembled screwdriver works like this:

  • The slot is inserted into the risks of the screw.
  • Clockwise movement of the handle — screwing.
  • Anti-clockwise movement — twisting.
  • Additional functions are activated by a button located in the upper or middle part of the handle.

Types of screwdrivers


Screwdrivers are divided into types according to the type of slot. Standard marking and its interpretation are indicated next to the name of the form.

Flathead screwdriver — SL or slotted

Flathead screwdriver - SL or slotted

Other names are straight or straight. The shape of the working part is a flat blade.

  • Suitable for simple screws with one risk.
  • Manufacturers additionally indicate the length, thickness or depth of the groove if the tool is supposed to be used to work with specific fasteners.
  • A slotted screwdriver is most often used for simple electrical fasteners.
  • The disadvantages of flat models include the impossibility of centering — the bit tends to slip out of the screw.

The force is applied to the opposite (diagonally) outer edges of the slot.

Phillips screwdriver — PH or Phillips

Phillips screwdriver - PH or Phillips

Tapered bit and four edges for Phillips fasteners.

  • The Philips cruciform profile is characterized by two slots at right angles to each other.
  • This option offers a number of advantages compared to the classic flat shape — more points of contact, increased working contact.
  • The force is applied along the four edges — screwing in is less laborious.
  • Disadvantage — since the force is applied in a narrow area, there is a risk of damage to the screw or slot.

The Phillips profile is often confused with Pozidriv. Improper use can result in damage and rapid tool wear.

Hex — H or HEX

Hex - H or HEX

These models or inbuses are recognized by the working part with a section in the form of a hexagon. In comparison with a simple cross model, the torque can be increased up to 10 times.

There are three variants of HEX models:

  • Interior — the protrusion is located inside, designed for fastening screws with a corresponding cavity. A shape with six faces that are at an angle to each other.

The disadvantage is an increased concentration of stress, leading to deformation of the fastener.

  • External — ledge along the rim, used for fasteners with non-recessed heads. Can be used as an alternative to a wrench. This version is also hexagonal in shape with six faces.

They stand at an angle of 120 degrees to each other.

  • Vibration-proof — the model has a hole in the tip of the bit that matches the shape of the protrusion of the screw head. This ensures stability and vibration protection.

The functionality of all three types is identical.

Square — Robertson, Square Head

Square - Robertson, Square Head

  • Section in the form of a square.
  • Four surfaces at right angles to each other.
  • Opposite sides are parallel.
  • Due to the small area of ​​the disk, the profile is inefficient for transmitting high torques.

This model is rare in Russia, practically absent in Europe, but ubiquitous in the United States. It is used, in addition to the standard application, in the mechanics of vintage cars.

Cross-shaped with guides — PZ or Pozidriv

Cross-shaped with guides - PZ or Pozidriv

The Pozidriv profile is produced in the form of two crosses, offset at an angle of 45 degrees for tight insertion into the fastener.

  • The additional cross is narrower than the main one and of lesser depth. This provides additional stability and stability.
  • Pozidriv is an improvement on the classic Phillips profile.
  • Four additional edges or beams in addition to the cross profile serve to eject the tip.
  • The cross slot has a recess for the guide.
  • Fits more tightly into the fastener than a simple cross shape.

There is a hole in the middle of the slot to increase the pressure force, but it does not eliminate the shortcomings of the classic cruciform design.

Star — TORX

Star - TORX

A tool with grooves shaped like a six-pointed star.

  • It is used to transmit increased torque in comparison with the classic variations.
  • During operation, the slot or screw is not damaged.
  • There is no risk of tool slippage, as is sometimes the case with a flat profile.
  • Due to the reduced radial forces, tool life is extended. This is the result of a combination of the circular geometry of the splined lobes, sidewalls and a 15 degree drive angle.

Pay attention to the differences between TORX and TORX PLUS: they are designed for different fasteners, despite the identical functionality and external similarity. TORX PLUS has flattened petals, not rounded ones. This is an enhanced version of the model.

TORX vibration-proof has the same properties as the classic TORX. The difference is that the tool has a hole located in the tip, and the corresponding screw head is complemented by a small central pin.



The characteristics of the tool are read by its full marking. For example, SL1*80 is a flathead screwdriver with a 5 mm shaft, 80 mm long, suitable for fasteners with a diameter of less than 3 mm.

Number rod Ø rod length fastener Ø
#0 4 mm less than 80 mm less than 2 mm
#1 5 mm 80–100 mm 2.1–3 mm
#2 6 mm 100–120 mm 3.1–5 mm
No. 3 8 mm 120–150 mm 5.1–7 mm
#4 10 mm 150–200 mm 7.1 mm or more

Combined with the type markings (SL, HEX, PH, etc.), the table gives a complete picture of the features and application of a particular tool. Sometimes the marking is supplemented by an indication of the metal alloy from which the slot is made.

Screwdriver functions


Screwdrivers are equipped with additional sets of options that are selected according to the types of work and tool requirements.

Electric installation work

Electric installation work

The priority is protection against electric shocks and detection of electrical wiring.

  • dielectric coating — a tool for working with live wiring. Electrical insulation can withstand up to 1000 volts. More often, such models are accompanied by a red marking.

A dielectric screwdriver can be covered with a layer of insulation for the entire length of the rod up to the slot.

  • Tester, probe — a device is built into the screwdriver that can detect hidden wiring and the presence of current in the outlet. When a voltage source is detected, the tool gives a light or sound signal.

The indicator screwdriver signals when the upper part is clamped with a characteristic glow. Most of these models are available in transparent cases.

Difficult operating conditions

Difficult operating conditions

To access hard-to-reach places, loosen rusted fasteners or lengthy bulky work, special tools or improvised means are used.

Some models of screwdrivers have features that make it easier to work in difficult conditions. There are no universal options, the tool is selected for a specific task.

  • Hard to reach places — for easy access, screwdrivers with a flexible shaft are used. Most often, such models provide additional reinforcement, a spring frame or a magnetic bit.
  • Processing tight fasteners — most often the difficulties are caused by corrosion, which tightly adheres the screw to the surface. For such tasks, models are used that can withstand the blow of an improvised tool (hammer, chisel).

Impact screwdriver is equipped with a metal case and handle. When the auxiliary tool hits the end, the slot of the screwdriver rotates.

  • Continuous work — most often these are processes that require reusable twisting of fasteners. To simplify the work, reversible ratchet screwdrivers are used.

If you have to screw in more than ten bolts, a mini-analogue of a screwdriver is used — a cordless screwdriver.

Different types of fasteners

Different types of fasteners

For work with heterogeneous fasteners, models with a bit change function are used. If you have to work with flat and cross fasteners at the same time, combo models are preferable.

Most often, this is a handle with a plug-in rod, on which diverse types of bits are fixed. Flipping the shaft in combo models turns the cross bat into a flat one. Another option is a non-removable rod with a magnetic holder for a replaceable slot.

For diverse work, it is more often not a specific model that is chosen, but a set of screwdrivers. It is a small case or suitcase that contains several screwdrivers or only one — the base one and a set of interchangeable nozzles for it.



The features of the slots are discussed in detail above, so we will focus on the remaining components of the kit — handles and rods.



Handles are made of plastic or polycomposite. To reduce slip, a rubber coating, recesses or notches are used. The covering gives to the tool ergonomics and convenience.

  • Ratchet mechanism — attachable «ratchet» handle, similar to those used in compound socket wrenches. During operation, the rod and tip rotate freely, and the handle remains motionless in the hand.

The model does not require unnecessary movements, so it is optimal for bulk work.

  • T-shaped — Swivel type models with a curved or solid top that supports the installation of an auxiliary arm.
  • with a heel — most often present in sets of impact screwdrivers. Instead of recessing into the handle, a through stroke is used. The rod at the end free from the nozzle has a thickening — the heel, which softens the load from hammer blows.

Modified handles make screwing/unscrewing easier or increase torque. Most often, the functionality is set by a button or a reverse switch on the handle.



Shaft modifications allow you to add additional functionality to the tool.

  • Non-standard lengths — long or short screwdriver models. Length restrictions apply to stem and handle. Suitable for processing hard-to-reach places. More common in combo or flexible models.
  • With the function of changing the tip — the tool in this configuration is equipped with a ratchet mechanism or a standard handle. The option without a mechanism implies the use of a universal combo rod. For slots of such models, replaceable bits are provided in the kit.
  • Faceted rod — a variant with a square or hexagonal section (standard — round). Supports the use of levers to add torsion force. The lever is a hand tool.

Bits and heads — are typical tips for handpieces.

There are magnetic models that support the capture of fasteners in uncomfortable conditions. According to external parameters, they correspond to standard types of slots.



There are no individual accessories for screwdrivers. They are complemented only by sets that combine diverse types of nozzles or screwdrivers.

Such a kit often consists of a body with recesses for convenient location of basic and spare parts.

  • Small or budget kits are small plastic cases.
  • Professional models — a suitcase with a handle for comfortable carrying, plastic or rubber-coated.

Inside contains a set of screwdrivers, interchangeable heads or nozzles.

The larger the set, the more variations for different types of work, sizes and shapes of marks.

There are models supplemented with protective agents — anti-corrosion liquid, oil for lubricating metal elements, and a brush for cleaning.

Battery models are supplemented with a charger and a replaceable battery. Household variations often do without these accessories — the buyer takes care of the timely charge on his own.



Features of screwdrivers are considered in relation to the type of tool slot.

By slot type

  • flat — the tool tightens standard screws and screws, the marking is marked along the width of the tip. Suitable for fasteners with cruciform marks. Flat models are used for domestic and electrical needs.
  • Hexagonal — for fasteners with hex risks. Variants of a non-standard type are common, representing an L-shaped rod with edges, bent at the top.

The thickness of the rod corresponds to the slot of the fastener for which it is suitable.

Used for electrical repairs, furniture assembly.

  • star-shaped — used in the repair of household appliances and mobile phones. They are rarely used in everyday life, as they require special skills.
  • cruciform — most convenient for household and professional needs. There are models that support combination with a flat slot. Optimal for driving all types of self-tapping screws and screws of suitable shape.

By slot type

There are special models for narrow applications, adapted for use with only one or several types of fasteners:

  • Spanners are two-pin variations for elevators with anti-vandal protection.
  • Shamrocks (Tri-Wing) — for aviation and complex electronics.
  • Asymmetric (Torq-Set) — only the aviation industry.
  • Clutch — for Chevrolet and GMC trucks.
  • Pentalobe is a five-sided variant for Apple technology.

These models are not used in everyday life, but without knowledge of their existence, the repair of complex equipment is not always possible.

Pros of screwdrivers


The advantages of screwdrivers are based on the configuration and functionality. A comfortable set of options does not always replace specific functions.

Basic features of the options:

  • electric models or battery type — increased speed;
  • with reverse — support the unscrewing of fasteners;
  • ratchet — minimal load on the hands;
  • shock — cope with tight screws that an ordinary screwdriver will not twist;
  • indicator — the ability to determine the phase, search for live wires;
  • dielectric — safe for electrical work, preferred when it is not possible to de-energize the room.

Advantages are usually combined. For example, a dielectric coating is combined with an indication option, a battery with a reverse.



The disadvantages that complicate the operation are also related to the set of functions. The fewer additional options in a screwdriver, the higher the chance that the tool will last a long time.

Problem areas:

  • Battery type — requires constant changing or charging of batteries. In conditions of major repairs, the premises quickly fail. More often this feature is found in Chinese technology, the quality of which does not always meet the needs of Russian conditions.
  • Ratchet — sensitive to abrasives and dust. The mechanism fails when used in dusty rooms or at a construction site.
  • Percussion — unaesthetic due to the metal case, ergonomic models of this type are rare.
  • Indicator — the main problem is the burnout of the indicator light, after which the model turns into a regular screwdriver. Audible indication requires battery replacement.

The current charge is not displayed on the case, so at the right time it is easy to find yourself without the appropriate functionality.

Models with reverse are not presented in the list of problems, since the mechanism rarely fails. Dielectric variations are similar to the usual ones, the difference is only in the coating, so their operation does not cause problems.

How to choose a screwdriver

Which is better to choose

The screwdriver is selected in accordance with the tasks ahead and the type of fasteners with which you plan to work.

The following parameters will tell about the quality of the tool:

  • Rod strength — indicated on the body. A tool with a strength parameter in the range of 47-52 Rockwell units is preferred. An indicator below the indicated indicates the likelihood of bending, in the higher — a tendency to cracking.
  • Alloy — Cr-V or chrome vanadium is considered universal. It maintains sufficient mechanical strength.
  • Equipment — Ergonomic rubberized handles are preferred. The tool should not slip out of the hands, even if they are wet. It is advisable to select bits with magnetic coating for comfortable work with small fasteners.

For the tool of Russian manufacturers, compliance with GOST 17199–88 is provided. In this case, there is a marking on the body or handle.



The greatest danger when working with a screwdriver is the misuse of the tool.

  • Before starting work, select the appropriate type of screwdriver and make sure that the size of the working area matches the size of the mounting profile.
  • When working, it is necessary to use it only for its intended purpose, do not expose to heating to temperatures above the permissible ones, do not use a screwdriver, the tip of which is damaged.
  • The handle must be insulated and chip-free when working under power.
  • The screwdriver shaft must be placed along the axis of the fastener.



Hand tools come with a warranty ranging from 12 months to lifetime service.

  • The need to exchange goods or return the money spent arises if the purchased screwdriver turned out to be defective, deteriorated or broke due to the fault of the manufacturer.
  • Refusal to receive service under the warranty is received in case of non-compliance with the rules for using the tool or in case of mechanical damage.

The budget segment allows people not to contact service centers, but to buy a new tool.


Faults and repairs

Screwdriver malfunctions in the basic form are limited to breakage of the handles or blunting of the slot metal.

  • If the handle is interchangeable, it is replaced with an analog. Models with one-piece handles must be recycled. However, craftsmen fix broken plastic by heating or using superglue.

In this case, the durability of the repaired handle is not guaranteed, the tool is no longer suitable for screwing in self-tapping screws and tight bolts.

  • A dull screwdriver is sharpened with a grinder and a cutting wheel, dremel or needle file. The last option is the most labor intensive. Sharpening a screwdriver with a blade requires it to be fixed at a 90 degree angle in order to create correct bevels.

Self-repair is possible only in the case of a dead battery or a clogged ratchet. When the mechanism is clogged, the tool is disassembled, cleaned of abrasive and lubricated for prevention.

Models with complex mechanics are more likely to be repaired in a service environment.

Screwdriver manufacturers



Budget tool supplier from China. The company itself is located in Canada. They offer a wide range of hand tools. The warranty is for the power tool only and is 1 year.



German brand, the tool is produced in China. They have impeccable quality, reliability and ergonomics, corresponding to European standards for working at a professional level. Warranty — 1 year.



German company producing tools and accessories in various industries. Provide a huge selection (more than 17,000 items). Warranty terms are not specified.



Professional tool manufacturer from Taiwan. Products are made from high quality materials according to generally accepted standards. It is applied at the enterprises with high requirements to equipment. Lifetime product warranty.



A Japanese manufacturer specializing in household appliances and tools manufactured in China. Quality and durability are confirmed by a lifetime warranty and an international quality certificate.



A company based in the USA and the tools are made in Taiwan. We specialize in hand tools for professionals and amateurs. The main qualities of products are innovation and convenience. The standard manufacturer’s warranty is 1 year.



A young Russian manufacturer specializing in the manufacture of budget tools, power equipment, thermal equipment. The company’s products are renowned for their high quality and durability. Guarantee for tools — 5 years.



The world’s leading manufacturer of premium hand tools. They produce more than 3000 types of tools, which are famous for their quality and functionality. Warranty — 2 years.



A young Russian manufacturer specializing in the manufacture of budget tools, power equipment, thermal equipment. Products are famous for their good quality and durability. Tool warranty — 5 years.

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Foam guns

Mounting foam — household or professional — is necessary when installing plastic windows, replacing old doors, sealing and insulating. To work with professional varieties, a special tool is used — a mounting gun.

The device of guns for polyurethane foam

Before studying the functioning of the tool, it is advisable to familiarize yourself with its general structure.



The foam gun got its colloquial name for its resemblance to a handgun. There are a number of common nodes that are similar to each other in purpose and device:

  • Trunk. Through it, a liquid substance is “shot” under pressure, which subsequently polymerizes into a solid foam structure.
  • trigger. Trigger that actuates the mechanism for releasing foam from the cylinder.
  • Handle (pistol). Designed to hold the instrument in hand. Allows manipulation with one hand.
  • Adapter. An analogue of a pistol clip. In this case, its role is assigned to a foam cylinder.

The tool also provides a mechanism for adjusting the supply of foam — a fixing screw. It controls the rate and volume of foam release. The barrel ends with a fitting through which polyurethane is ejected.

Principle of operation

Work algorithm

Before starting work, the cylinder is kept up to 6 hours in a room with a positive temperature. Shake vigorously 15-30 times, after which the protective cover is removed from the cylinder head.

It is fixed with threaded parts until a tight connection. The working position will be signaled by a characteristic sound in the form of a short hiss.


  • By gently pressing the trigger, the release mechanism is activated, the valve opens the way for the contents of the cylinder into the barrel.
  • During movement inside the tube, the prepolymer “boils up” and passes into a foamed state — primary expansion occurs.
  • The flow of polymer, leaving the fitting in the form of a thin jet moving at a certain speed, receives the main increase in volume. It expands to 60–90% of final values.

The direction is determined by the operator who controls the tool. The output speed and volume of material is regulated by the fixing screw and the degree of opening of the cylinder by means of a trigger mechanism. The last steps depend on the experience and skills of the master.

Types and characteristics of foam guns

Types and characteristics

The design of the tool is collapsible or non-collapsible. The latter is a disposable pistol used for short-term operations. The device is an inexpensive form, made almost entirely of plastic.

There are no adjustment functions, it cannot be repaired.

Collapsible type — a reusable device that is subject to repeated use and repair. It is made of metal or special high-strength plastics. It is possible to replace individual parts of the structure.

Applicable material

Applicable material

The material used affects the durability, strength, performance and cost of the tool. Main types:

  • Inexpensiveth plastic. Used for disposable designs. It is beneficial to use in the repair of one dwelling. There are enough opportunities to install 2-3 plastic windows, replace 1-4 door blocks, and seal the balcony.

But the work must be done in one or two days. With long periods of time, the internal cavities will become clogged with hardened foam, and the device will fail.

  • Metal-plastic. An inexpensive type of tool with which you can repair a multi-room apartment or cottage. Repairable, requires washing after use. It is recommended to remove the cylinder with the remaining foam.
  • Metal. Professional grade tool. Expensive, but justifies itself in case of intensive use. Designed for people who constantly work with mounting foam.

Subject to the rules of operation and careful attitude, it can last up to 6-8 months.

  • metal-teflon. The metal parts in contact with the polyurethane substance are coated with Teflon. Thanks to this, the cured sealant is removed without a trace. Beneficial for continuous operation — the tool is expensive and will not justify itself in one-time operations.
  • High strength plastic. The use of durable polymers for the main parts — handle, body, adapter — allows you to reduce the cost of the tool without losing functionality.



The manual type of mounting guns is used when working with a portable container. This increases mobility at work. The assembled device is compact, the overall dimensions do not exceed 50 cm.

The industry produces another type of product used when working with an external compressor — an air gun.

The difference from the manual one is the absence of a long metal tube through which the liquid polymer is ejected, and the presence of fittings to which a hose is attached to supply air with high pressure.

Principle of operation:

  • The prepolymer flows through the valves to the outlet of the gun, where it is picked up by a jet of compressed air and crushed into small particles.
  • The flow moves at high speed towards the treated surface.
  • Drops stick to the plane, the substance interacts with atmospheric moisture, resulting in the formation of a porous structure.

This operation is used to form a heat-insulating layer. The latter is characterized by high thermal insulation, good adhesion to the base and a single monolithic composition.

Equipment and accessories

Complete set, accessories

The hand tool is supplied in a cardboard or plastic package (blister) with fastening elements for trade and exhibition equipment.

To perform work in hard-to-reach places, some models are equipped with nozzles:

  • Conical shape. They serve to fill narrow gaps, cracks, holes of small diameters.
  • Extension in the form of a flexible tube made of polymer. It is used when working in hard-to-reach places.

Nozzles are reusable: after use, they must be cleaned with acetone or a special tool in a small container.

In case of untimely cleaning of fixtures with a liquid agent and the foam hardens, the latter is removed mechanically. To do this, the nozzles are kept for 2-7 days until the final setting and drying of the polymer.

After that, with a sharp object, the cured sealant is removed.



  • Professional polyurethane has a denser structure, since the inner cells during polymerization are smaller than from a household cylinder.
  • The foamed product at the exit receives an expansion ratio of 60-80% of the final volume. Therefore, the expansion forces on the mounted structure will be minimal.
  • Determining the right amount of household foam requires a good knowledge of the properties of the product itself and solid experience.

A professional product uses the material more accurately and optimizes its application by distributing foam volumes to several processed objects.

  • It is much more practical and convenient to work with a pistol, since only one operator’s hand is occupied. Additional operations are performed with the free hand, for example, the workpiece is fixed.

A specialized tool of the middle price class will pay for itself when repairing a 2 or more room apartment or building a country house. For craftsmen whose income consists in carrying out finishing work, this type of device is essential.



During operation, there are some problems associated with the inconvenience of using the assembled structure:

  • The balloon with foam in relation to the horizon should occupy an almost vertical direction. When working under the ceiling, it becomes difficult to use the gun.

To eliminate this drawback, it is necessary to use an extension tube. But then the ease of use is lost, in this case the operator has both hands occupied.

  • The assembled structure, together with a human hand, occupies a space of 35-45 cm in two planes, which significantly limits its use in narrow places. The standard extension cords included in the delivery set are of little use in this case.


A medical tube from a dropper can help in such a situation, but its length should not exceed 50-60 cm. Otherwise, there will not be enough pressure inside the balloon to push the foam.

  • During breaks in work for more than 2 days and emptying the container by half or more, the tool must be disconnected from it and cleaned. In this case, the remainder of the polyurethane disappears, it will not be possible to reuse this cylinder.

Other problems are human forgetfulness. For example, an error in the calculation of the required amount of sealant or the lack of a cleaner leads to additional time.

How to choose

How to choose

When inspecting, it is required to pay attention to the completeness of the information indicated on the packaging. In addition to the characteristics and description of the design, information about the country of manufacture, the name and address of the company must be present.

The primary indicator of the tool’s performance is tightness and the ability to hold internal pressure.


  • In production, products are pressed, so when you press the trigger of a new product, excess air exits through the barrel with a characteristic hissing sound. This indicates tightness and the ability to work under pressure.
  • An additional check is working with a cleaner. To do this, a container with a liquid inside under pressure is installed on a new product. By pressing the trigger, the release mechanism is activated.

A serviceable device ejects the stream only through the barrel. The appearance of moisture in other places of the structure indicates its malfunction.

  • The material from which the gun is made speaks of the expected service life and strength. Cheap plastic is a sign of a disposable device. Conversely, a durable polymer indicates a long service life.

Which is better

Which is better

When choosing the best device, you should focus on the following parameters:

Construction material and a combination of the «price-quality» indicator (in descending order):

    • teflon coating;
    • all-metal product;
    • high strength polymer;
    • metal-plastic;
    • inexpensive plastic.

    maintainabilitythat is, the ability to disassemble and replace individual parts.

    Presence of a mechanism adjusting the volume and feed rate of polyurethane foam.

    Manufacturer brand. The manufacturer, which has been operating on the market for a long time, strives to produce only high-quality and reliable products.



    When working, it is necessary to observe safety precautions:

    • The prepolymer is in a closed vessel under pressure, so it can be heated in an environment with a temperature not exceeding 30-35°C.
    • Polyurethane, which is in a gas-liquid state, is a flammable and explosive substance. You can not fill the gun, perform operations near heating devices, especially near an open flame.
    • It is not allowed to direct the equipped tool at a person, animals, heat-producing devices. Accidental actuation of the trigger or spontaneous operation of the product may result in serious injury.


    • The replacement of an exhausted cylinder must be done carefully and as quickly as possible: under the influence of residual pressure, there is a risk of splashing onto surrounding objects.

    Resin residues can dry quickly in air, resulting in a loss of time to clean the tool.

    Application rules

    Application rules

    • The foam can goes up.
    • At the end of shaking, the container is screwed onto the adapter without undue effort. A characteristic hissing sound will signal the correct connection.

    The absence of such a signal indicates a malfunction of the tool, clogging of channels or valves, the end of the warranty period for foam.

    • The feed regulator is opened by turning one quarter of a circle. By directing the nozzle into an unnecessary container, it is necessary to achieve the required flow consistency.
    • The prepolymer is directed deep into the space to be filled. The amount of sealant should not exceed half of the total free volume.

    End of work

    End of work

    It is not recommended to remove the container with the unused substance from the tool if the interval between operations does not exceed 3-7 days. The tip of the nozzle does not need to be cleaned of sealant residues — this will increase the tightness of the device.

    When all the polyurethane is used up, the cylinder is dismantled, the tool is washed with a cleaning liquid. The flow regulator is closed.



    The warranty period for the product is indicated in the accompanying documentation (passport, instructions, on the packaging). But this only applies to branded products.

    Replacement or repair is subject to products that have:

    • external damage;
    • failure of the trigger mechanism, including the trigger;
    • discrepancy between the threaded parts of the adapter and the foam;
    • seal failure.

    The latter conditions are checked in the presence of the seller or at home. The claim must be made within 7 days after the sale. Claims will not be accepted if there are signs of external interference or self-repair attempts.

    Faults and repairs

    Malfunctions, repair

    Refusal appears after breaks in work. It consists in not passing foam through the device. The reasons are clogging of the internal cavities of the structure with a hardened sealant. The correction of this shortcoming is the disassembly and cleaning of the gun.

    For such operations you will need:

    • cleaning fluid and/or acetone,
    • a knife with a thin and sharp blade,
    • awl or sharp self-tapping screw with a long threaded part.

    The hardened polymer is removed mechanically, the cavities are washed with liquid.

    In case of mechanical failure, the tool is disposed of or sent for spare parts. Repairs in most cases are not carried out due to the fact that components are difficult to find. Therefore, a new design is acquired.

    Foam gun manufacturers



    A Canadian company that produces tools for construction and household purposes, including those for working with foam:

    • nozzle guns for operations with standard cylinders without special fastening;
    • household class tool;
    • products for craftsmen-finishers;
    • Pro class.

    Official dealer of FINCH INDUSTRIAL TOOLS CANADA INC in Russia.



    The tool of the German company can be safely attributed to the professional series. This is evidenced by the Teflon coating of all manufactured models made of metal. Suitable for craftsmen who constantly work with foam products.



    A German company produces tools for semi-professional and professional use. Almost all parts are made of metal, except for plastic handles.



    One of the most famous companies in the Russian Federation, headquartered in Germany. It produces different models: lightweight «disposable» devices with a housing made of inexpensive plastic and professional metal structures for permanent use.



    The company’s brand is registered in Germany. Produces three models:

    • household class with a housing and an adapter made of inexpensive polymer;
    • semi-professional series with a metal body, a Teflon-coated needle and additional nozzles;
    • pro grade with full teflon coating.



    A Russian company focused on the mass and professional consumer of various tools and household goods. Produces several series of tools:

    • Expert,
    • Standard,
    • Master,
    • Professional.

    The series differ from each other in the presence of a special treatment (barrel polishing or adhesive coating), sealing rings, body material.

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Tile cutters

Before a box of tiles turns into wall or floor cladding, a lot of routine processes will go through. But even perfect masonry is easy to spoil with ugly cut patches.

Therefore, a quality tile cutting tool is the first thing to take care of before starting repairs.

How a tile cutter works

Principle of operation

The algorithm of the tile cutter directly depends on its type. The mechanical version is considered the basic one, it also raises the greatest number of questions about correct operation.

The cutting process looks like this:

  • A cut line mark is applied to the end of the ceramic tile.
  • The tile is laid on the tool frame in such a way that the stiffener is exactly under the line.
  • The tile cutter handle is set opposite the mark, the clarity of the line is fixed by lowering to the surface.
  • Then you need to position the handle so that the roller is pressed against the tile at the very end.
  • The handle is held along the rails to the opposite edge of the tile with a quick and hard movement with sufficient pressure. At the same time, a characteristic sound of cutting through the glaze is heard.

If the roller passes over the surface more than once, there is a high chance that the tile will not crack as intended.

  • Tiles with cut glaze are fixed by hand to prevent displacement.
  • The handle is lifted so that the cross foot is on the edge of the tile. A sharp press on the end switch of the handle breaks off the required piece exactly along the cut line.

Principle of operation

In electric models, sawing of the surface to the full depth is provided. The principle of operation is similar to the action of a grinder, but the process uses water for dust removal, and the usual cutting wheels replace diamond-coated discs.

The tile is cut entirely according to pre-made marks.

Types of tile cutters


Tile cutters are conditionally divided by type into mechanical and electrical models. Despite the common name, the difference in use and approach to cutting is huge. Only the result in the form of a cut tile is identical.

Manual (mechanical)

Manual (mechanical)

The tool is a frame with a protruding longitudinal stiffener in the center.

  • Most often, the bed is covered with a soft material or rubberized, but there are also all-metal structures.
  • Two round rails with a handle or a monorail are installed on top.
  • A marking scale with a protractor for cutting tiles at a given angle is installed above the bed.
  • A sharp roller and a transverse foot for pressing the cut tiles are fixed on the handle.

A glass cutter is often referred to as a manual tile cutter — a device equipped with a cutting roller that fits easily in the palm of your hand.

Purchasing a glass cutter instead of a full-fledged tile cutter would be a mistake for a beginner.

The tool requires developed fine motor skills, skill and selection of pressing force. The savings are completely offset by the number of hopelessly damaged tiles.

Before moving on to electric models, it is worth mentioning that confusion occurs with them. Classic stationary tile cutters are used in production — large units that are installed with fixation on the floor or special countertops.

Manual (mechanical)

Models for repair teams and domestic use that are not fixed to the surface are just portable. But it is they who are found under the name of stationary, if they are installed on a table or have a protective block in the form of a box.

And portable options are considered without a block, suitable for working on weight.

Electric portable

Electric portable

Portable models look like angle grinders or circular saws. But the discs for them come with diamond coating.

  • The tool is mobile, small models are held on weight with one hand.
  • Most often, compatibility with dedusting nozzles is provided.
  • A portable tile cutter is convenient for processing slopes and other surfaces where cutting and fitting tiles in place is required.
  • The angle of inclination and the setting of the cutting depth are set by the limiters from the kit or by a protective cover.

A portable tool is suitable for spot or one-time work, but it is inconvenient for laying tiles over large areas.

Electric stationary

Electric stationary

It is considered a machine-type tile cutter. Models have differences in the location of the motor, on which the direction of the disc feed depends — top or bottom.

The tool looks like a box with a diamond disk built into it, it can be supplemented with a cutting platform. The water-cooled tile cutter is equipped with a special container.

Water cooling disc necessary for prolonged operation and to prevent overheating.

Water is also used for other tasks:

  • cooling of the cut line — chaotic cracking of the tile occurs from overheating;
  • dust removal — with a full cut “dry”, dust and small abrasive particles enter the air in an amount sufficient to cover a medium-sized room with a thick fog.

Electric stationary

Disc bottom feed involves the location of the sawing mechanism under the table top. The disk is recessed inside the container, 3-5 cm remains on the surface. The automatic lifter sets the angle at which the side is sawn.

The tool with the bottom disc feed is more compact than the top one.

Top disc feed means that the marked tiles are laid out on the surface of the platform. The marks are aligned with the opening of the platform, and the disk is lowered from above. The cut comes from the butt.

Differences in work between electric tile cutters with top and bottom feed are insignificant. But the first are considered a professional tool, and the second — a household one.

Characteristics of tile cutters


Basic characteristics: power, disc diameter refer only to power tools, since in manual models these indicators have nowhere to apply. But the length of the cut is a parameter comparable for both types of devices.

Power — the higher this parameter for the engine, the harder the material can be processed with a tool. Indicators for different types of tiles:

  • tile — 750-1500 W;
  • porcelain stoneware — 1-1.2 kW;
  • marble — 2 kW and above.

Power is related to the size and weight of the tool, as well as the diameter of the discs used.

Disc diameter — in low-power devices, circles with a size of 230-250 mm are used. A large or professional power tool requires the use of discs with a diameter of 350 mm.

Cutting length depends on the type of tool. In manual models, the limit is set by the size of the bed, more often it is possible to cut tiles no longer than 60 cm long. Electric models do not limit the master in the length of the cut or the dimensions of the tile.



The basic function of any tile cutter is to cut tiles evenly along a given line.

But when it comes to non-trivial tasks — laying tiles around pipes, installing a socket on the surface, filing edges or cutting tiles into a diagonal, additional functions are indispensable.

Hole milling

Hole milling

It is impossible to cut a circle in a tile by any of the presented types of tile cutters. For this work, an additional accessory is used, which, depending on the design and the need for electricity, is called a crown or a ballerina.

  • Crown is a nozzle for a power tool (drill, screwdriver, puncher). Consists of a drill and a head of a certain diameter. There are variations with one or more interchangeable heads of different sizes.

The ends of the crowns are covered with the already familiar diamond coating.

The professional version assumes the presence of compensatory cuts along the edges of the crown to protect against overheating and sludge removal.

  • ballerina — a mechanical option that does not require a power tool. It is a drill or a sharp foot fixed on a leg. Perpendicular to them is an adjusting bar, on which one or two paws with a cutter are installed.

It is found as an independent accessory or as an addition to a manual tile cutter. There are options that are used as nozzles. The diameter of the desired hole is adjusted by a screw or a button on the ballerina’s leg.

If the crown cuts the tile only from the front side, then the ballerina involves two-sided work.

Angle cutting

Angle cutting

It is considered that manual tile cutters are unsuitable for angled cutting. At the same time, anyone can saw off tiles on them using the built-in protractor at a given angle.


  • These are obtuse corners or cuts that do not pass through the tip of the tile.
  • It is possible to make a diagonal cut from corner to corner if a thin tile is used, the master feels the tool and has experience in such work.
  • Otherwise, attempts lead to damage to the tile, so traditionally diagonal cuts and 45-degree angles are made using electric tile cutters.

If we talk about angular processing of edges — without a power tool it is impossible.

Those who prefer manual tile cutters, for the sake of such tasks, supplement them with a grinder with a diamond blade.



The scope of delivery depends on the type of instrument. In mechanical models, this is the tile cutter itself and packaging, sometimes they are supplemented with a ballerina, limiters or a replaceable cutting roller.

The electric tile cutter is completed with the following set:

  • parallel and angular stops;
  • sets of limiters, guides and adjusters;
  • additional fixture;
  • protective cover;
  • legs adjustable in height;
  • rulers, protractors and other auxiliary measuring tools;
  • optionally, manufacturers add interchangeable nozzles and discs to the kit.

Crowns for round cuts are almost never found in basic sets.



Accessories are built-in or attachable.

  • Connecting a vacuum cleaner — this option is most often provided in portable electric models, but it is also found in stationary ones. Attaching a vacuum cleaner is necessary during dry cutting.

For connection, the tool has a hole with a twist or grooves for fixing. In most cases, a household vacuum cleaner will not work — the size of the hole and the shape of the mounts are adapted to the equipment of a particular manufacturer.

  • Angle stop — allows you to cut tiles at a given angle without marking. A common option is adapted to an angle of 45 degrees, but in stationary models this range varies from 0 to 45 degrees.

Emphasis — limiter with a scale. In electric models, in addition to the angular one, a parallel stop with a similar principle of operation is available.

  • Side platform — creates additional support for wide tiles. It is most often found in electric stationary models, attached to the side. Without this accessory, the tile is unstable.

When you want to cut a thin piece, you have to support it with your hands for maximum fixation. With the platform, manual support is not needed.

Optional accessories: transport rollers, folding legs or carrying bags.



Each type of tile cutter has features that you should pay attention to when choosing and subsequent operation.



In mechanical models, the rigidity of the rail and bed determines the quality of the cut and the breaking characteristics of the cut tiles.

  • It is important to control the absence of deformations and distortions, otherwise you will have to break the tiles with improvised means.
  • The permissible load on the frame is indicated by the manufacturers on the tool body.
  • The ease of replacing the cutting wheel depends on the type of attachment. Expanding clamps are more convenient, but during operation, the roller often slips out of the groove.

Mechanical fixation with screws in this regard is more reliable — the probability of damage to the tiles when slipping is reduced to zero.

Cushioning pads at the carriage indicate that the model maintains accurate work and cutting without unscheduled stops. It is because of them that incorrect fractures occur.



The power tool has a number of its features that determine the performance and comfort during work:

  • In machines with top feed, filtered water enters the working area by pumping.

Options with self-cleaning filters and the ability to adjust nozzles are difficult for a beginner, but are preferred if constant activity is planned.

The efficiency of waste water removal and the minimization of splashing speak in favor of the tool.

  • With the bottom supply, water flows through the tank, and the replacement of the liquid occurs by emptying the container. It is believed that the larger the tank, the less often you need to add and change water.

But at the same time, the fact of ease of replacement is overlooked — small and medium containers win here.

Curly cutting is provided only in branded test models. This functionality has not yet found widespread use. Most masters pluck out curved lines on the tile with pliers — this is laborious, hands are erased to calluses.

Plucked fragments are polished with a diamond disc.



We will consider the advantages without reference to mobility or stationarity, since the main difference lies in the type.



  • does not require electricity or special conditions;
  • there is no dust and noise;
  • no special skills required;
  • violations of the conditions of safe operation do not lead to serious injuries and do not pose a threat to life;
  • increased speed of work;
  • most often a manual tile cutter is a tool with low weight, it is easy to carry it from place to place;
  • Suitable for outdoor use in adverse weather conditions.



  • low percentage of scrap when breaking tiles;
  • the possibility of grinding edges and setting edges at 45 degrees — for external corners without the use of trims;
  • independence from the size of the tiles;
  • suitable for processing porcelain stoneware and natural stone;
  • versatility — suitable for cutting thin tiles and mosaics or stones of increased thickness;
  • depending on the disc, the depth of the slot reaches 4 cm.

The benefits are sometimes insignificant if the tile cutter is used in inappropriate conditions, requires repetitive actions or special skills.



Each of the presented types of tools has disadvantages and negative features that can make it difficult to operate.



  • the limitation on the length of the tile is set by the dimensions of the bed, not suitable for overall models;
  • the quality of the cut depends on the wear of the roller, but it is inconvenient to control its condition;
  • carriage play with a handle in budget models worsens the clarity of the cut;
  • bends of the bed in the plane or soft manufacturing metal lead to cutting difficulties — up to the point that the glaze is only cut through in the device, and the tile itself breaks with improvised means;
  • it is impossible to make curly cuts, only straight lines.

Despite the listed inconveniences, the mechanical option is safe, simple and does not cause difficulties for beginners.



  • the tool is loud, in machine models the average noise level reaches 60 decibels;
  • with a lack of water, the cuts are accompanied by an increased amount of dust, and with a normal amount, splashing occurs;
  • low productivity due to low speed;
  • stationary models are bulky and bulky, inconvenient for manual transportation;
  • not suitable for work in conditions of high humidity, risk of electric shock;
  • unsafe without protective pads and casings, and with them it is not always possible to correctly process tiles of non-standard shape or thickness;
  • need for electricity.

If the tile is cut in large volumes or for professional purposes, it is difficult to do without an electric tile cutter.

How to choose a tile cutter

Which is better to choose

The choice of a tile cutter begins with determining the optimal type of device. To do this, you need to answer a few questions:

  1. Will the tool be used at home or at an industrial facility?
  2. Disposable or reusable process? For example, laying tiles in the bathroom and kitchen of your own apartment is a one-time job that does not require professional tools.
  3. How many tiles are to be cut? What thickness? Lengths?

For disposable household needs, a mechanical tool is preferred. For reusable industrial or work with dimensional material — electric version.

When there is certainty with the type of tool, the parameters characterizing the best device are checked. For mechanical and electric tile cutters, they are different.



  • The bed or base should not sag under pressure from the hands. Check the plane of the platform by turning it perpendicular to the viewing angle. Roughness and bent corners, a slight shift with the propeller will complicate the work.
  • Marking details (ruler, protractor) do not always show the correct divisions, the stops should be checked for perpendicularity to the frame. A misaligned stop can damage the tile.
  • Cushioning pads — it is optimal that they be present on the frame, handle and under the carriage.

    The rubberized version is preferred, excluding slipping.

  • The handle is a better reinforced version. When moving, there should be no play or horizontal displacements.
  • Number of rails — for the two-rail version, pads are required to soften the carriage travel. The option with a monorail is more reliable, there are no specific requirements for it.



  • Protective cover — check the tightness of its fit.
  • Disk — to check the tool must be turned on. Backlash is not allowed. In the off state, the disc fasteners are checked — the system should be clear, the parts should fit snugly together.
  • An overlay at the base of the wire will extend the life of the tool, it is desirable to have it.
  • Platform — the correctness of the plane is checked, the absence of chips and notches.
  • The number of revolutions and power — the maximum indicators correspond to a professional tool.

The smoothness of the ride, the evenness of the meters and the platform will help you choose the best device.

How to use a tile cutter


When using a tile cutter, follow standard safety precautions to avoid injury:

  • Please read the instructions before first use.
  • Use safety goggles, gloves and clothing.
  • Place the tile cutter on a flat, hard surface.
  • Carefully check the fixation of the tile.
  • Check for foreign objects.

The above rules apply to all types of tile cutters.

Manual models must be checked before work — increased attention is paid to the bed and the longitudinal rail. They should not have fragments of old tiles, traces of sand and other abrasives. This affects the correctness of the break of the workpiece.

Electric tile cutters require special handling. The noise level during operation of this type reaches 100 decibels in large models — it is necessary to use protective headphones.

  • Do not use the tool in explosive environments.
  • Keep away from moisture to avoid electric shock.
  • Stop the tile cutter immediately if the blade is jammed or the wire is damaged.
  • Do not overload the tile cutter — this reduces wear on the blade and increases its efficiency.

It should also be remembered that after each use of the machine, it is necessary to remove the cutting disc and clean it of dust. Store the tool in a safe and dry place.



The tile cutting tool comes with a 1 to 5 year warranty. Marriage or breakdown due to the fault of the manufacturer allows you to exchange the goods or get back the money spent.

The manufacturer has the right to refuse service if the operating rules were not followed, this is especially true for power tools

  • Mechanical damage, chips on the instrument were found.
  • The problem was caused by the buyer.
  • The tool is heavily soiled, careless operation.
  • The item showed signs of self-repair.
  • The tile cutter was used with consumables that were not designed to work with it.
  • The tool was used with the motor overloaded.

If a marriage was found, you must contact the seller from whom the purchase was made. Some manufacturers provide free tool preventive maintenance (cleaning, rinsing, lubricating).

Faults and repairs

Faults and repairs

Malfunctions of tile cutters correspond to their type. Each has its own set of typical breakdowns.

mechanical type

mechanical type

Jammed handle or carriage — a malfunction indicates that a large abrasive has fallen under the protective pads or there is not enough lubrication. In most cases, lubricating the instrument and replacing the overlays with analogues completely eliminates the problem.

Bed arched — the problem indicates mechanical damage to the tile cutter or excessively soft metal of manufacture. In difficult cases, repair is impractical, it is easier to replace the tool.

With minor distortions, problematic parts are pointwise straightened mechanically.

An indicator that the tool is working correctly will be a smooth ride and breakage of the cut tiles without significant effort.

If the cutting roller is broken or worn, it must be replaced, like any consumable. To do this, the fastener is twisted or the latch is pressed. A new similar roller is installed in place of the old one.

Professional manual tile cutters may require a hex screwdriver.

Electric tile cutter

Electric tile cutter

Start button stuck — comes from contamination or when clogging with pieces of abrasives. Self-repair is possible. To do this, you need to de-energize the tool, remove the case and disassemble the push-button mechanism.

When disassembling, thoroughly clean with a soft brush, being careful not to damage the contacts. Lubricate for prevention and assemble back.

The problem may also be related to the wear of the contacts or the mechanism.

Often a complete replacement of a button with an analogue is required. The actions are the same as for cleaning, but in addition, the old contacts are called by the tester to check the correct operation.

If everything is in order, a new button is hooked to them.

Jammed disk — occurs due to pollution, a large amount of dust or lack of lubrication. It is possible to fix it yourself. To do this, disconnect the device from the network and unscrew the fixing nut.

Electric tile cutter

Next, you need to remove the disk, clean it and the flange from dust or add grease. After that, insert everything back and make sure that the nuts are securely fastened, do not overtighten either.

Wire problems — basically the problem appears due to mechanical damage to the wire if it is pinched or incorrectly laid. Check the cable for breaks.

Electric tile cutter

If the cable breaks at the base:

  • de-energize the tool;
  • remove the wires from the switch terminals;
  • wring out the bracket holding the cable in the device;
  • pull out the wire and remove the rubber protection from it;
  • cut off the damaged area;
  • remove the outer insulation and strip the wire a couple of centimeters, being careful not to damage it;
  • put on the bend protection and insert the wires into the terminals, install the bracket and tighten the screws.

Now you can connect the tile cutter to the network and check the result of the work done.

More complex breakdowns and repairs of warranty equipment are carried out in service centers.

Tile cutter manufacturers


The list includes mainly German companies with manufacturing facilities located in China. The price category is average, there are budget options, but most are designed for serious work.



A German company producing goods for domestic and professional use. Electric tile cutters offer good value for money and come with a 2-year manufacturer’s warranty.



German company, products are manufactured in different countries. It specializes in the production of tools for both professionals and amateurs, as well as household and garden equipment. They produce manual and electric tile cutters with a guarantee of up to 3 years.



The brand comes from the USA, the products of which are made in China. They specialize in the production of professional electric repair tools, including tile cutters. Product warranty — up to 3 years.



Canadian company supplying budget-class tools from China. The range includes a variety of repair tools. They make exclusively manual tile cutters. The warranty is only for electric tools — 1 year.



German company specializing in the manufacture of professional power tools. They produce electric tile cutters of high power (up to 4000 W) with water cooling. The guarantee is given for 2 years.



The company from Sweden specializes in the production of garden equipment and tools for forestry work. They produce professional electric tile cutters with a powerful engine. Proprietary miter cutting technology. Warranty terms — 1 year.



The company, whose factories are located in many countries of the world. Specializes in the manufacture of power tools, machine tools and welding equipment. Electric tile cutters are of good quality and power. Warranty — 3 years.



Domestic brand that produces budget power tools, equipment and consumables for household work. Electric tile cutters are equipped with an energy efficient motor and come with a 1 year warranty.



A young Russian company producing budget power equipment and tools. They make both electric and manual tile cutters with high strength. Manual tile cutters have a 2-year warranty, and electric tile cutters have a 5-year warranty.

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8 types of hammers

Types of driven hammers

The operation of the device with a drive is based on the principle of operation of a hammer — impact on an object or part.

According to the type of energy supplied, hammers are divided into:

  • electric;
  • mechanical;
  • hydraulic;
  • pneumatic drive.

Electric hammers


The source of external energy is the electrical network. The engine drives the rotor, which in turn acts on the striker. The latter transmits mechanical impulses to the percussion device.

hydraulic hammers

Hydraulic drive

In this device, technical oil serves as a working medium that transmits energy. Make-up is carried out from a hydraulic station. The vibration component is provided by the oscillation generator.

The flow of fluid acts on the piston-striker. Further, the mechanical impulse is transmitted to the shank of the percussion device.

Due to the high density and lower compressibility of the working fluid, in comparison with the pneumatic actuator, the product is compact. Has increased impact power.

Productivity is 2-3 times higher than that of analogues. In addition, the design itself produces less noise.

Pneumatic hammers

Pneumatic drive

The working fluid is compressed air. The supply is carried out by the compressor. Adjustment is made by air-distributing shock system. It, alternately changing the direction of the air flow, creates the effect of a periodic multidirectional pressure vector.

Due to this, the piston receives a forward-return movement. A hit is created.

This group of tools with an external power source includes devices that convert human muscle strength. The principle of operation is preserved — the creation of a shock impulse.

Staple hammers


Other names — construction or furniture stapler. The drive is by human muscle power or pneumatic, electric (from the network or battery). The last two are for industrial applications.

The device with a manual drive is equipped with a spring. This allows you to increase the force of impact and produce it in hundredths of a second. It is used to solve domestic and industrial problems. Limitation — the physical capabilities of a person.

The design uses two types of springs: classic twisted or lamellar. For the first type, a mechanism for adjusting the impact force is provided. In the second case, the product is compact and inexpensive.

The stapler is equipped with a mechanism that allows you to score:

  • rectangular brackets;
  • U-shaped fixing elements;
  • nails;
  • pins.

A type of stapler is a staple hammer. It is a handle to which a staple mechanism is attached. The energy to drive the brace is the impact inertia.

The stapler has found application in the furniture industry — with its help, upholstery fabric is attached. It is used in construction: decorative panels, electric or television cables are fixed, wooden lining is “targeted”.


The electric stapler is equipped with a safety mechanism — to prevent involuntary pressing the trigger and ejection of the staple. Without fixing and pressing the device to the base, the button will be blocked, the fastener will not come out of the case.

Devices are developed and used with one type of hardware. Appropriate marking is applied to the packaging and body of the product. Universal staplers are produced that work with 2-6 types of fasteners.

Nail guns

Nail gun

A mechanical device for driving fasteners without the use of human physical strength. The device runs on electricity or compressed air. When driving a nail, pressurized gas is applied to the piston. The latter acts on the nail, pressing it into the material.

A safety mechanism is provided to protect against an unintentional shot into the air. The work will be carried out after pressing to the base.

The nail gun is used in housing construction, assembly of large-sized wooden structures, pallets. It is applied in furniture production and to finishing works.

Construction guns

Construction gun

It is made in the form of a pistol or a jackhammer of small sizes. The working fluid is powder gas from the actuation of a construction cartridge. Designed for targeting metal dowel-nails into dense materials:

  • concrete;
  • brick;
  • low carbon steel.

Application is regulated by state acts. People who have undergone special training are allowed to work.



Refers to a group of devices that affect an object with a periodic variable force. The main function is to produce a blow.

  • designed to form recesses or through holes in partitions, bases;
  • breaks concrete or asphalt;
  • splits the overall details of structures;
  • loosens dense soil;
  • crushes rocks and performs other functions.


As an external drive energy is used:

  • organic fuel — gasoline type with the installation of an internal combustion engine on the hammer body;
  • pneumatic — the working fluid is compressed air supplied from the compressor;
  • electricity — power is supplied from the central network or a portable generator.

Characteristics of automatic hammers

Power. For an electric drive or a gasoline engine, this is an indicator of the power plant. Compressed air — compressor power.


Impact force. Work at the point of application of force or the amount of energy transmitted to an object in a limited space (area of ​​a percussion instrument). With increasing performance, the ability to work with heavy and dense materials increases. For example:

  • up to 5J — removal of plaster or tiles, chasing under a cable or pipe;
  • 5-30J — dismantling of brickwork, concrete partitions, leveling of a dense base;
  • 30-60 J — processing of frozen soil, mining of rocks, making niches in a concrete wall;
  • over 60 J — «concrete breakers»; destruction of ceilings at airfields, building reinforced concrete structures, foundations.

Number of strokes. Shows the number of impacts per unit of time. Describes the performance of the tool. For a certain type of work or type of material, its own processing mode is selected.



  • Light class, up to 5 kg, used for finishing work; versatility, the ability to perform operations in a horizontal position (perpendicular to vertical planes).
  • Medium, 5-10 kg, is used to solve a wide range of tasks — making openings, dismantling a concrete base or destroying asphalt; due to the increased mass, a restriction is imposed for operation in a horizontal plane.
  • Over 10 kg — «concrete breakers»; Designed for heavy-duty work with tough and tough materials.


The tool is used in conjunction with devices:

  • Crowbar (peak). It is used to create recesses, holes, loosening the soil, destroying rocks or concrete.
  • Shoulder blade. Removes old coatings, tiles, cleans the surface from sagging.
  • Chisel. It is used for operations on reinforced concrete, frozen ground, cutting metal.
  • Rammer. Compacts the soil or soil, is used for work on sealing joints, cracks.


The design of the device provides a number of functions:

  • Soft start mode. Applies to electric drive. Allows you to gradually increase the speed, reduce starting loads, increase the service life. The electric hammer works without jerks. Reduces stress on the hands.
  • Stroke control. The frequency setting is made for a specific operation. Heavy structures require maximum performance. Precise work is done at minimum values.

Auto mode. The adjustment system independently selects a constant number of strokes, regardless of the applied load.

  • Locking the start button. Allows you to block the trigger mechanism, thereby relieving the operator’s fingers from the load.
  • Vibration protection. The operation of the mechanism causes increased vibration affecting the mechanism of the device and the operator. The use of dampers, counterweights, soft shock-absorbing materials can reduce the load.

This has a positive effect on the person and the design of the device.

  • Carbon brush health indication. Warns of an approaching replacement of the motor brushes due to wear of the conductive coating.



The power tool kit includes:

  • package;
  • accompanying documentation (passport for the product, instructions, warranty card);
  • set of seals (for pneumatic or hydraulic drive);
  • additional set of carbon brushes for the electric motor;
  • percussion devices (peak, chisel, spatula, rammer);
  • oil tank and more.

The list of included parts and accessories varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. It can be a standard kit or a set of additional options.



Devices with a mechanical drive have a number of consumer qualities:

  • reduction of physical load on a person;
  • high productivity compared to manual labor;
  • allow you to perform operations with durable dense materials, disassemble heavy structures;
  • electric tool, due to its overall dimensions and weight, is successfully used to solve everyday problems;
  • the gas unit does not depend on third-party energy sources;
  • pneumatic hammers are used in places with increased fire and explosion hazard.

How to choose automatic hammers


When getting acquainted with the tool, it is advisable to pay attention to a number of factors:

  • types of work performed, volume of operations and intensity of operation of the hammer;
  • the presence of an external source of energy — electricity, a compressor or a hydraulic station;
  • the ratio of indicators «mass of the device — power»;
  • equipment with functions, number of operating modes;
  • the presence of a repair and service network in the village.

One of the indicators of quality and reliability is the brand (trademark) of the manufacturer.

Despite the higher price, excellent technical characteristics, service life and warranty will make it possible to recoup the costs incurred for the purchase of the necessary equipment.



An externally driven tool is a technically complex machine. It must be used strictly for its intended purpose. Requirements and recommendations are set out in the accompanying documentation: passport, operating instructions.

Violation of the rules of use during the warranty period will result in the loss of the possibility of free maintenance and repair.



Standard terms of service and free repair are established by the manufacturer. Information about this is given in the documents attached to the technique.


Complicated breakdowns must be eliminated in a service and repair shop. It is especially important to follow these recommendations during the warranty period. But there are cases when it is possible to eliminate the shortcomings on your own:

  1. Skew staples (nails, pins). Eliminated by bulkhead clip with fasteners.
  2. Breakage of the wooden handle of a hand tool. Repair — replacement of the handle.
  3. Formation of burrs on a metal striker. It is necessary to process the surface with grinding material.
  4. Weakening of the fixation of the hammer on the handle. Replacing the wedge, installing a new handle, soaking in water.
  5. Clogged air duct in pneumatic equipment. Remove dirt and ice chunks. Blowed out with compressed air.
  6. Small number of strokes. For pneumatics — lack of air flow pressure. Electricity — low voltage in the network.
  7. Carbon brush wear. Replace with new parts according to instructions.
  8. Dry moving mating parts. The reason is the lack of technical oil. Elimination — topping up the lubricating fluid container.

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Surface grinding is a complex mechanical process. In addition, it is difficult to achieve a perfectly flat surface by hand. This was dictated by the emergence of such a power tool as a grinder.

How a grinder works

principle of operation

The action of the grinder is based on the effect of friction of the abrasive surface of the tool on the base being processed.

There are several principles of operation of a power tool:

  • Vibration. It is characterized by forward-return movement.
  • Circular. The movement is around an axis.
  • Combined (eccentric). Combines two principles of work — axial rotation and vibration.
  • Linear continuous. Typical for a belt type tool.

Work must be done in the following sequence:

  • connect the equipment to the outlet;
  • provide a comfortable grip;
  • turn on;
  • wait until the unit picks up speed;
  • bring to the surface to be treated and start grinding.

By following the steps, you can avoid injury and damage to the device.

Any grinder has the following elements in its design:

  • Engine. Most often there is a collector, in the most modern models it can be collectorless. But the cost of the second option is quite high. But it does not require periodic replacement of brushes.
  • Nutrition: mains, accumulator, pneumatics.
  • working platformon which abrasive removable sheets, tapes, disks are fixed.
  • Lever. Depending on the model, there may be 1-2 handles.
  • Control system. On / off, speed control. In well-known brands, there is an additional auto-adjustment. At the moment when grinding begins, due to the friction force, the productivity of the machine drops.

    In professional equipment, there is a sensor that controls the speed, which allows you to maintain the required torque intensity.

  • Disk. The disc diameter directly depends on the engine power. The higher the capacity of the unit, the larger the disk can be used.

Depending on the type of grinder, there may be differences in design.

Types and functions of grinders


There is no strict classification for grinding power tools. Some of them are named according to the principle of operation, others — according to the features of the device, and still others — according to the specifics of the application.

Sanding polishing machine


The name speaks for itself, this technique is used for finishing surface polishing and restoration work. This equipment is used in the automotive industry and the finishing cleaning of varnished wood products, including parquet. According to the principle of operation, orbital and eccentric models are produced.

Polishing machines have the following specifications:

  • Power consumption 901 — 1200 W. In this case, there must be a high-quality gearbox. Compared with an angle grinder (angle grinder), it has a large transmission moment.
  • Max disc diameter 181 — 230 mm, for floor machines it can be 800 mm.
  • The weight. The greater the engine power, the heavier and larger the equipment itself will be. For polishing jobs that are considered thin, it is better to take a small unit up to 2 kg.
  • Number of turnoverin from 600 to 3000 rpm. Do not forget that this indicator is set in an idle position, with the action and increase in the friction force, this indicator will fall.

Additional functions:

  • Auto RPM. This function will output the specified parameter at the output and during operation, which will significantly improve the quality of the polished surface.
  • Smooth start — an important function that, when starting up, will not allow the equipment to jump out of your hand, and when using polishing liquids, splashing will not occur in all directions.
  • Protection against accidental inclusion. How relevant this function is for polishing machines is an individual decision.
  • Overload protection. For this equipment, high speeds are not provided, and the design assumes a special structure of the gearbox, which is able to withstand an increased load.
  • Dust collector connection. Polishing machines are more used for finishing polishing, in which there is no significant dust. Therefore, this function is not so important. But if you plan to use it often for stripping, then it is better to provide a model with such an opportunity.

Accessories and equipment for polishers depend on the application:

  • Disks. It can be both soft polishing materials and abrasive ones. Fastening occurs to the platform using clips or Velcro. The second option is more popular.
  • Additional handle gives a comfortable grip. Actual for larger models.
  • Barbell needed when working with hard-to-reach places.
  • case. A branded tool has a «package» by default — it ensures the safe storage and movement of equipment.
  • dust collector. Depending on the intensity of «dirty» work. At high rates, it is better to use a construction hand vacuum cleaner.

There are models that run on mains, battery, compressor. The first two are used for domestic needs and in the semi-professional field.

Compressor connection is typical for professional industries and high intensity of operation.

angle grinder


The universal angle grinder (angle grinder) is designed for cutting and processing various materials: metal, ceramics, tiles, concrete, plastic, glued beams, wood. This tool in its design has an important difference from the previous one — high speed. Associated with the versatility of use.

The devices must not be intensively used as a polishing tool.

It is used for short-term work without overloads. Grinding produced by angle grinders is coarser, suitable for deburring than for finishing polishing.

By design, angle grinders can be single-handed and two-handed. The second type belongs to the professional line.


  • Power consumption. Single-handed (domestic use) — 600-900 W, 1200-1500 W, two-handed — 1800 — 2100 W.
  • Maximum disc diameter > 230 mm. For such consumable wheels, the recommended speed is 8000 — 10000 rpm, for small ones — 10001 — 12000 rpm. For household needs, discs 116 — 125 mm are used. They can do both cleaning the base and rough grinding.
  • The number of revolutions directly depends on the power consumption, so the range of values ​​​​is very large from 1000 to 12000 rpm. The operating range of 4000 — 6000 rpm is considered optimal.
  • Weight and dimensions. These parameters also depend on the power of the equipment and reach up to 4.5 kg.

Additional features can make your work more comfortable:

  • Auto speed control. This option is in demand for intensive use of equipment as a grinding unit. This will avoid rapid wear of the angle grinder.
  • Soft start, protection against accidental inclusion. Helps to avoid jerk at startup. Ensures safe use.
  • Overload protection. An important feature, especially if the tool does not provide automatic speed control.

Accessories: cutting and polishing wheels of various types.

Power supply: mains, battery, pneumatics.

Straight grinder


The device is used for cleaning and finishing grinding of hard-to-reach places. For this, conical, cylindrical abrasive nozzles, soft of small diameter, are used. The peculiarity of such a tool is its compactness.

The equipment itself is presented in the form of a small pen.

Often the kit is supplemented with an extension trunk, which allows you to work in hard-to-reach, remote places.


  • The average power consumption of a straight grinder is in the range of 600-900 watts. This is due to the miniaturization of the device.
  • Maximum disc diameter ≤ 115 mm. There are also more powerful units with the ability to install consumables with a diameter of 126 — 150 mm.
  • The revolutions of such equipment reach > 12000 rpm. You should know that the smaller this indicator, the greater the torque, i.e. under loads, the device will not overheat.
  • The weight. It is considered optimal from 1.3 to 1.7 kg.

Additional functions.

  • Speed ​​controller. The equipment is used for various types of surfaces, so the function must be present.
  • Speed ​​controller. The specificity of a straight grinder is “jewelry work”. Therefore, this option will not be superfluous.
  • It is desirable that the engine be protected from dust.
  • Another interesting option is a flexible «trunk» for working in remote hard-to-reach places.
  • Stand, holder.

Accessories in straight cars:

  • cone, ball, cylindrical abrasive stones;
  • abrasive, soft circles;
  • drill;
  • cue ball.

The discs are fastened with the help of scurvy, the optimal size of which is 6 mm.

Power supply: mains, battery; pneumatics. The latter type of connection is used in the production of professional equipment, increased power.

Belt sander


Belt sander (LSHM) — the most famous and popular type. At the base of the device there are two rollers on which a closed abrasive belt is pulled. Such a machine is used for the primary processing of wood surfaces.

When scrolling the tape and moving the equipment along the base, a layer of up to 1 mm is removed. Works are carried out along the fiber, this gives a smooth quality base. Machining across the grain will roughen it. Can be used to remove old paintwork.

Given the design features, the tape machine will not work well with metal and plastic. It is associated with high performance of the equipment, which can lead to heating of the base due to friction and its deformation.

It is not recommended to process surfaces with significant irregularities.

It will not be possible to perform high-quality processing, and it threatens to wear out consumables.

There are models for processing convex and concave surfaces.

Belt sanders have the following specifications:

  • Power consumption. The model range is quite large, there are both low-power equipment with narrow tapes (601 — 900 W) and powerful units (1501 — 1800 W).
  • The length and width of the tape depends on the engine power. The first dimension is in the range from 400 — 600 mm. The second, from 65 to 110 mm.
  • The rotation speed of such a device ranges from 200 to 700 m/min. For domestic purposes, machines with indicators of 200 — 300 m / min are suitable.
  • The weight. The average parameter is up to 4 kg. For high power units, it can reach up to 6 kg.

Additional functions:

  • Speed ​​controller. It will allow you to work not only with wood bases, but also with plastic.
  • Protection against accidental inclusion. The need for this function is decided individually.
  • Overload protection. As a rule, LSHMs are rarely equipped with a speed controller and an auto-regulator, so it is advisable to provide this option.
  • Dust collector connection. Such machines need this option. Processing wood surfaces, especially at high speeds, generates a lot of dust.
  • Tape position and tension adjuster.
  • The bounding box allows you to shoot the same layer in different areas.

Accessories — sanding belts with different abrasive sizes.

Complete set: case (usually in more expensive models), dust collector (if there is a function in the equipment itself), clamps, clamps, bounding frame. Clamps help to fix the LSM permanently. Power supply: mains, battery, pneumatics.

Random Orbital Sander


The equipment is used for fine finishing grinding and polishing. The principle of operation is circular and reciprocating motion, which resembles the movement of planets in orbit. Therefore, the device received another name — orbital. It is this distinctive feature that gives the output a surface with high quality.

Such devices are not recommended for polishing cars and surfaces with significant irregularities.

They cannot be permanently installed for processing small parts due to increased vibration.

EShM (eccentric sander) has a flat sole in the form of a plate, on which working disks are attached, using Velcro or fastening. For removal of dust on the working basis of the tool perforation is provided. Fine and polishing jobs do not require powerful speeds.

Main technical data:

  • The power consumption can be ≤ 300 W or in the range of 300 — 600 W. It is typical for ESHM that at high power consumption, the revolutions are reduced, and at low power consumption, they are high.
  • The maximum disc diameter is 215 mm. It is considered optimal in the range of 126 — 150 mm.
  • The number of revolutions and the number of oscillations. Unlike other types of grinders, ESHM has exactly two characteristics. The first can be from ≤ 4000 rpm and go up to 12000 rpm. The number of oscillations will be 2 times more than the revolutions.
  • The weight. Such machines have a small mass in the range of 1.2 -3 kg. It does not require much pressure to work. Quality is achieved due to the principle of operation at low speeds.
  • An important characteristic is the range of motion. The average is 3-5 mm.

Additional functions:

  • Speed ​​controller. For fine work, the option is needed to expand the range of processed surfaces.
  • Speed ​​controller. Its presence is required for intensive operation of the equipment.
  • Connecting to a dust collector. For ESHM, this function is relevant, since the work occurs with the appearance of a large amount of fine dust.
  • Pressure control. This system helps to make uniform pressure to remove the same layer.

Maximum equipment: additional handle, rod (for working in hard-to-reach places), removable network cable, case, dust collector. Power supply: mains, battery. Accessories for such equipment are wheels with abrasive of various grain sizes.

Orbital grinder

vibration grinding

Another name is flat grinding. It is used for fine polishing and grinding work. It can be wooden surfaces, and sanding after putty. The principle of operation is based on reciprocating motion. The amplitude of movement is insignificant, at high speed.

The base of the equipment is represented by a flat sole, more often of a rectangular shape.

The speed of work depends on its area. Sanding sheets can be fastened with Velcro, clips or a combined fastening.

There is a dust extraction system. For this, a special perforation is provided on the sole and sheets. The quality of processing depends on the abrasive of the grinding sheets and speed.


  • Power consumption in the range ≤ 300 W.
  • The platform has a rectangular shape, width from 75 to 115 mm, length from 104 to 330 mm.
  • The number of revolutions is high in the ranges of 8000 — 10000 rpm, 10000 — 12000 rpm, > 12000 rpm, depending on the model.
  • The magnitude of the amplitude of movement is from 1.5 to 4.5 mm.
  • Weight from 1.2 to 2 kg.

Important additional features:

  • Speed ​​controller. This will expand the application possibilities.
  • Speed ​​controller. It will help to perform high-quality fine finishing polishing.
  • Soft start, protection against accidental switching on, protection against overloads is solved individually depending on the intensity of work.
  • Connecting to a dust collector. The current option will help reduce indoor pollution.
  • Pressure control.

Accessories: fabric and abrasive sheets, coated meshes. Maximum equipment: case, rod, additional handle, dust collector. Power supply: mains, battery.

delta grinder

delta grinding

This equipment option is a kind of surface grinders. It has the same purpose and similar characteristics. The only difference is the shape of the platform, which resembles an iron. This allows you to work with complex parts and perform grinding in hard-to-reach places (corners, joints).

wall grinder

wall grinding

The device is designed for grinding walls, ceilings, floors, and is produced on the basis of eccentric and vibration machines.

A distinctive feature is the presence of a rod in which a dust removal system is mounted.

Weight together with the bar reaches 6-8 kg.

Specifications are the same as for vibratory or eccentric machines.

Additional functions

  • Regulator of revolutions / oscillations. This option will increase the views of the processed surfaces.
  • Autoregulator. Allows uniform removal of the sanding layer.
  • Overload protection. Despite the insignificant power, the remote control of the equipment does not allow you to control the level of pressure, so it is better to provide this function.
  • Pressure control. This device has an actual function.
  • Connection to a vacuum cleaner. For use in construction and finishing works, it is better to provide. This will reduce the emission of harmful dust into the atmosphere of the room.

Accessories: nets with various coatings, abrasive and fabric nozzles. Maximum equipment: case, rod, additional handle.

Grinder for stone and concrete

for stone concrete

There are two versions of devices: for dry stripping and wet stripping. This equipment is widely used in construction and decoration. With it, you can level concrete and monolithic floors, clean surfaces from old coatings and seams, and remove scratches.

The support sole is made in the form of a circle. Grinding discs, cutting heads are attached to it.

The stone/concrete tool can be either a manual type or a floor type.

According to the principle of operation, these can be eccentric, vibration machines.

Specifications for manual type equipment:

  • Power consumption in the range from 900 — 1500 W. There may be more powerful machines.
  • Maximum disc size up to 800 mm. For manual units, 125 mm is optimal.
  • Number of revolutions depending on the model average value ≤ 4000 rpm.
  • The weight of manual devices is on average 2-3 kg. Floor options can reach up to 124 kg.

Additional functions

  • Speed ​​controller. Expands the scope.
  • Automatic speed control for manual models allows you to work with a uniform load.
  • For such equipment, soft start, protection against accidental activation, overload protection are relevant.
  • Connecting to a dust collector. Required feature. Grinding of concrete and stone surfaces is accompanied by a large amount of dust.

Accessories are presented in the form of cutters, grinding wheels. Maximum equipment for manual models: case, additional handle (provides a comfortable grip), dust collector. Power supply: mains, battery, pneumatics.

brush grinder


The brush grinder is widely used for cleaning surfaces from paint and varnish coatings, rye. It is interesting to use it in carpentry to highlight the texture of wooden surfaces, aging. Fine polishing and grinding can be done.

The principle of operation is similar to the operation of a tape machine.

Average specifications:

  • Power consumption in the ranges 901 — 1200 W, 1201 — 1500 W.
  • Roller diameter 120 mm.
  • Number of revolutions 1000 — 3000 rpm.
  • The weight of the devices is 4-5kg.

Additional functions:

  • Speed ​​controller. Required because grinding and cleaning surfaces occur at different speeds.
  • Speed ​​controller. Useful feature for uniform surface finish.
  • Mechanical adjustment of the grinding depth.

Accessories: rollers in the form of metal brushes, abrasive-polymer, nylon. Maximum equipment: case. Power supply: mains, battery.



Sanders have undeniable advantages:

  • The speed of grinding operations is many times higher than during mechanical processing.
  • The physical costs are much lower than manual grinding.
  • The quality of the resulting surface. The presence of additional functions in the devices allows you to remove a uniform layer from the entire plane.
  • With mechanical grinding, dust must be constantly removed. A modern power tool is equipped with a dust collector, or has the ability to connect to a vacuum cleaner, which makes “dirty work” clean.
  • A wide range of models allows you to choose the right model for specific materials.
  • Various areas of application from «jewelry work» to building a house from a bar.
  • The main advantage of grinders is to make tedious and hard mechanical work fast and of high quality without much effort.



When using grinders, there are several disadvantages:

  • The work is carried out in several stages, with the change of grinding discs / sheets or different tools.
  • Dead zones. Every machine has them. You will have to refine it mechanically, or purchase a narrowly focused tool (straight grinder, delta grinder).
  • Price — options. Additional features are deferred to the cost of equipment. Saved on purchase, repair costs are acquired.
  • The presence of fakes of famous brands.

How to choose a grinder


To select any power tool, you should determine for yourself:

  • Scope and scope. This parameter allows you to focus on a specific type of equipment and decide on accessories and equipment.
  • Intensity of exploitation. It will help you choose the right power, number of revolutions.
  • Ability to connect to the network. In this case, it will be easier to decide what type of power the grinder should have — mains, battery, pneumatics.
  • Budget. It is decided individually, it helps to announce to the seller the price segment in which to look for a suitable model.
  • Manufacturer. It is better to give preference to well-known brands.
  • Guarantee. Warranty conditions and the availability of a service center.
  • Ergonomics. Before buying, you should hold the tool in your hands. Feel how comfortable it will be to use.

These are the points that will make it easier to choose a tool. It should be remembered that savings when buying can lead to additional repair costs in the future.

Which is better

which is better

When choosing a grinder, it is impossible to say unequivocally which tool is better to purchase. We can only indicate some of the distinguishing characteristics that should be noted.

  • For polishing cars, paintwork surfaces, it is better to take polishing machines.
  • For rough processing of wood surfaces — belt, angle grinders. They have high performance.
  • For final grinding, polishing of wood sheets — vibrators and orbital.
  • For hard-to-reach places straight and delta grinders.
  • Brushes are suitable for cleaning surfaces, highlighting textures.
  • For construction needs, it is better to take wall grinders and devices for concrete / stone.

From the point of view of safety and convenience of work, it is better to take equipment that has the following options:

  • regulator and automatic speed controller;
  • protection against accidental start;
  • grinding depth regulator;
  • connection to the dust collector and its availability;
  • the ability to quickly change consumables;
  • ease of assembly / disassembly during maintenance;
  • additional handle;
  • protection of the engine against dust pollution.

This will help to perform quality work and prevent the risk of rapid equipment wear.



After completion of work, the grinder should be thoroughly cleaned and periodically lubricated moving parts. If the dust collector has become worse to absorb dust, it is necessary to disassemble and clean it.

It is recommended to use consumables with the characteristics declared by the manufacturer. It is necessary to control that the power cord does not fall into the working area of ​​​​the device and prevent overheating of the equipment. Store the device in a dry, heated room.

All these measures will prevent the rapid wear of machines.

When working with the equipment, observe safety measures and use safety goggles and a dust mask.



A very important factor in choosing and buying a tool is the terms of warranty service. The term is set either by the manufacturer or the seller.

Warranty obligations do not apply if the service center proves that the cause of the breakdown is related to improper operation, storage, and transportation.

Most often, the warranty does not cover the mechanical parts of the grinder, only the elements that move when turned on, the automation.

Therefore, when purchasing, you should carefully inspect the tool and check it for performance.

Be sure to keep all documents for the purchase and do not remove the identification marking from the device.

In the event of a breakdown, you should contact the service center, which is indicated in the passport for the equipment. If it is proved that the warranty case, then the buyer has the right to demand: repair, or replacement, or a refund.

Frequent malfunctions


The design of grinders is not particularly difficult. And repair is carried out by replacing faulty parts with new ones. The motors in such a power tool are commutator-type, they are light in weight and have good power.

The main parts that can fail:

  • Carbon brushes. This is a consumable item that has its own life and must be replaced periodically. Check if the copper plates to which the brushes adjoin have oxidized. Oxidation is eliminated with a rubber eraser.
  • Breakdown of the winding. Self-repair is not possible, it is required to completely remove the winding and wind a new one.
  • Malfunction of buttons, wiring (over time, the latch is erased, and the contact pad). It is necessary not only to correct, but also to establish the cause of this breakdown.
  • Rotor bearings. If a malfunction is found, replace.
  • The bevel gear pair is worn out — replace.
  • When the machine is overloaded, the grinding of gear teeth (with increased wear of the teeth, the backlash increases) must be replaced.

When working, it is important to mark the parts or take a step-by-step survey, which will later facilitate the correct assembly of the tool.

Grinder manufacturers


There are a large number of grinder manufacturers on the market. Consider the main brands:

AEG. Specialization in household appliances and power tools. This company has established itself as a quality supplier of woodworking equipment, which includes grinders. Distinctive characteristic — powerful reliable engines. Batteries deserve special attention.

The warranty period is 12 months from the date of purchase.

Black&Decker. Specialization in gardening and power tools. The equipment belongs to the household category. There are three categories, they differ in color: red, silver, green. Factory warranty of 24 months.

board. Part of the SBL group of companies. The assortment is quite extensive: garden equipment, power tools (drills, airbrushes), household appliances (refrigerators, air conditioners, etc.), devices for cars. Warranty period of 24 months.


Bosch. Specializes in the production of power tools, garden equipment. There are professional lines, and for domestic needs. The price range is different. High level of service.

The warranty period can be up to 36 months.

Defort. Part of the SBL group of companies. The range is quite extensive garden equipment, power tools, household appliances, devices for cars.

Warranty period of 24 months.

DeWALT. Specialization — professional power tools. One of the most popular brands on the market today, meeting all safety, reliability and durability standards.

The original tool on each part of the body has an embossed letter logo. Products are available only in yellow-black case. Particular attention is paid to the availability of maintenance, work safety, and the environment.

Warranty period up to 36 months.

FELISATTI. It specializes in the production of professional tools and equipment for construction and woodworking. Much attention is paid to new technologies. The warranty period is 24 months from the date of purchase.

Hammer. The company produces professional household tools. Woodworking specialization. The warranty period is 36 months.

hitachi. They produce power tools and equipment for industry, construction medicine, and household purposes. Reliability, quality and durability of the equipment is proved by years of faithful service.

Warranty period 36 months, batteries 12 months.

Interskol. Russian manufacturer. It is in the middle segment both in terms of price and quality. The grinding machines of this plant have established themselves as reliable. Produces tools for woodworking, concrete work, garden tools.

The warranty period is 12 months.

Caliber Russian manufacturer, not so long ago appeared on the market. Low price with good quality. The warranty period is 12 months.


Makita. The company’s products are classified as professional. Tools are produced gasoline, electric, battery. The warranty period is 12 months. In case of repair, its period is extended by the time spent in the service center.

Metabo. They produce tools for construction, metal processing, and gardening. Products belong to the professional line. The warranty period is 36 months, including for lithium batteries, which serves as a guarantee of quality.

Skil. They produce garden, household and professional tools. Warranty period 12-24 months, but from the date of purchase by the first buyer. Those. considering that the dealer is the first buyer, then equipment can be delivered to a simple consumer with a warranty period from the seller.

The list of presented manufacturers of grinding machines is far from complete. It should be noted that sometimes low-quality equipment can be hidden behind a well-known brand. To be safe, you can ask the seller’s service center about a particular device, whether there were any complaints about it and what.

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Spatulas and painting tools

Neither cosmetic nor major repairs can do without a spatula, brushes and painting accessories. The selection of hand tools is often overlooked, although it is this type of equipment that is responsible for the appearance of surfaces. The final quality of the finish also depends on it.

Types of spatulas and painting tools

Painting tools include spatulas, rollers, brushes, mounting guns and related accessories.

What are spatulas

All spatulas can be divided by size into three groups:

  • Small spatulas with a blade up to 150 mm. They are often used as a handy tool. They help to remove the solution from the container, gently apply it to a large spatula. They process small surface defects and sides.
  • Medium spatulas with a blade from 150 to 450 mm. Convenient for filling door and window slopes, sealing drywall joints, leveling perforated corners. They are also used as auxiliary equipment when trimming paper wallpaper and applying liquid wallpaper.
  • Large spatulas with a blade width over 450 mm. The tool requires steady skills. Used to quickly and evenly cover large areas and as a mini-rule. Finishing is done with large-sized spatulas. With such a tool, one finisher can process up to 300 square meters along straight walls. for a shift.

Additional division goes by functionality:

Conventional spatulas

A spatula with a flat blade is used for applying putty and plaster. As an auxiliary tool, it can be used for any finishing needs — from trimming the corners to removing the fugue. Common spatulas also include trowels — a tool with a platform in the form of a blade and a handle fixed on top.

Notched trowels or combs

For working with solutions in which there should be no voids. These are tile adhesive, mastics and other materials that are difficult to apply as a single mass without the formation of air gaps. The teeth of the spatula drive out the formed voids, which affects the strength and quality of the installation.

The size of the teeth is selected for a specific type of material, taking into account surface irregularities. For example, mastic is applied on a self-leveling floor with a notched trowel with teeth up to 3 mm — this is enough to glue the surfaces, taking into account small depressions.

Tile adhesive on concrete substrates may require a comb with 1–1.5 cm teeth, although 0.5 cm variations are more commonly used for leveled walls.

Rubber spatulas

Spatula for working with non-abrasive materials on smooth surfaces. Most commonly used for grouting tile joints. Do not leave marks on a smooth surface and do not scratch it.

The color of the rubber is selected according to the shade of the material with which to work. For example, for light ceramic tiles, a white rubber spatula is more appropriate.

There is a separate type of rubber spatulas designed to work with textured and structural plasters.

Plastic spatulas

This type of spatula is more often with uneven edges, usually rounded. It is used as a smoother for ordinary and liquid wallpaper or smoothing other thin materials that are damaged by a metal tool.

What are rollers

Short pile rollers

These rollers are preferred for spatter prone materials. These are primers, thin-layer paints and impregnations. There is a separate type of short pile rollers — velor, often seamless. It is used for uniform application of paint on smooth surfaces without smudges and transitions.

Rollers with long pile

They are used to work with thick mixtures and hide small surface defects, for example, for painting walls and ceilings with insufficient leveling quality. Long pile rollers are optimal when working with all types of wallpaper paste. They allow you to capture the amount of solution necessary for the rapid impregnation of the segments.

Also, a long pile serves to apply a uniform and thick layer of mortar to walls and ceilings, although there are exceptions. This type of roller is not suitable for impregnating the top layer of fiberglass with glue — the canvas can move away entirely due to the excess weight of the solution.

Rubber rollers

These rollers are used when pasting rooms with wallpaper. An analogue of a plastic spatula-trowel, often used with it in a single set.

The standard roller size of 15–25 cm is used to smooth the wallpaper over the freshly applied adhesive layer. Gently expels bubbles and relieves the material of excess wrinkling.

Rubber rollers of small size (about 5 cm) are used for rolling wallpaper joints and processing corners of rooms.

foam rollers

The type is considered disposable. Used for solutions that are difficult to wash off: epoxy and acrylic primers, oil paints, penetrex. The roller quickly fails, it is not advisable to use it for more than one day. Foam rubber is intolerant of aggressive liquids and may begin to fall apart, leaving pieces on a freshly painted surface.

Usually such rollers come with several spare fur coats, which are easy to change as soon as the previous one becomes unusable.

A separate type of foam rubber rollers is made of a material of increased rigidity and is used to work with textured plaster.

Needle rollers

Rigid plastic rollers with characteristic protruding needles. Are applied to leveling of bulk solutions. Such a roller is able to expel excess air bubbles from a fresh mixture. This is an analogue of a toothed comb, but designed for less dense materials than tile adhesive. When processing self-leveling floors, the roller is put on a telescopic stick. Using it, one worker processes 100 or more square meters per shift. floor meters.

Plastic rollers

This type of roll is in most cases covered with a texture in the form of ribs or patterns. It is applied to a task of a relief to structural plasters. Rollers are often seamless so that there are no transitions between layers.

What are paint brushes?

Flat brushes

Marking KP or flange type KF. Can be used with any paints, glue, enamels. Suitable for working in hard-to-reach places, corners of rooms, when processing curly plasterboard frames. The brush is universal. It can apply both a wide strip of paint and a narrow beating — just turn the handle perpendicularly.

Round brushes (hand brushes)

Marking KR, sometimes with the addition of «C» or «O». There are thin and thick types. Thin is used for spot painting surfaces, compatible with any type of enamel. The thick type is used for priming, blurring whitewash and wallpaper joints.

Radiator brushes

Brushes resembling flute brushes, but with a characteristic curved base and a long handle. They are used for painting radiators. They also apply wallpaper paste to hard-to-reach places. Such a brush will not replace the flute in normal repair work. The fold is inconvenient for permanent use.


Marking KMA, wide thick brushes, more like flat brushes with long bristles. It is used for painting with aqueous solutions, applying whitewash, thick layers of glue or varnish, it is convenient for priming, including applying betocontact. Due to the density and length of the pile, it carefully works out depressions and difficult places.


KFK marking, brushes with a working part up to 22 mm. Used for finishing work, drawing thin lines, processing narrow joints and ends.

Other painting tools

Lace with dye

Marking thread, a tool for beating straight lines on surfaces. It is most often used when pasting walls with wallpaper. In this case, the line is reflected along the vertical level. It is also applicable in painting works, it sets even joints of paint transitions.

The principle of operation is simple — there is a dry dye in a container with a cord. When shaken, it settles on the roughness of the thread. To work, the cord is gently pulled out by the metal tip to the desired length. The tip can be attached to a self-tapping screw or handed over to an assistant.

The thread is carefully pulled, it is important not to knock the paint off it. When the maximum tension is reached, the cord is grasped with two fingers and sharply retracted from the surface. The paint from it shoots onto the wall in a neat, even line.

Paint baths

Designed for easy handling of liquids. In most cases, they are a trough the size of a roller and a sloping platform with ribs that allows you to remove excess paint or primer from the tool. There are also models without ribs, but they are not so convenient. Bathtubs are made under the small and big sizes of rollers.

Telescopic poles

Tool for lengthening the handles of the rollers. It is a retractable stick with a narrowed tip. Roller handles are usually hollow and recessed — especially for mounting. The tip matches the shape of the cavity. To lengthen the stick, it is enough to twist its central part — this will open the latch, after which the tool is pulled to the required distance. Repeated torsion clamps the ligament into place.

Graters and graters

Tool for rubbing the top layer of plaster. There are polyurethane and wooden variations. In polyurethane models, the lower part is covered with a fine plastic mesh for the correct capture of the rubbed solution.


The tool is a handle with clamping blades. It is used for processing difficult places — removing dried fugue and glue from tiles, stripping wallpaper, removing excess epoxy and plastic drips and bumps. The scraper blades come in the shape of a trapezoid with a notch. Despite the external similarity with stationery, variations for knives will not fit into the tool.

Mixers (paint mixers)

For mixing solutions. Used as a nozzle for electric or pneumatic tools. Its functionality depends on the shape of the mixer. Variations for paint and fine abrasive mixtures contain 2-3 rows of turns. More often this type has a painted surface. Mixers for solutions are produced without protective coatings, do not rust. The number of turns of the spiral is increased.

The tool for rough plasters is equipped with blade-legs instead of spirals, usually 4-6 pieces.

Mounting guns

For sealants and adhesive mixtures in cylinders. Most manufacturers classify this tool as a painting tool, as it is used more often in conjunction with finishing processes. The device is a hollow frame with a pin, a spacer and a long handle reinforced with a spring.

A cylinder with a pre-cut hermetic surfacing is inserted into the cavity. The bottom of the package is pressed with a pin using a handle, and a uniform stream of material is squeezed out. To stop the process, the latch at the base of the handle is bent.


The advantages of a painting tool are to simplify and speed up routine processes.


  • Steel models are not afraid of rust, they can be used for years, regardless of whether it is a professional or household type of tool. As durable as metal ladders.
  • The elasticity of the blades allows you to choose the optimal pressure for work, taking into account the weight and plasticity of the putty material.
  • Spatulas with an extended blade length — more than 500 mm — are suitable for even and fast coating of large areas with mortar with minimal labor. The number of layer transitions and the need for frequent mixing of the material depend on the width of the tool. The longer the spatula, the less time it will take to work on fixing the mortar joints.
  • A tool with a handle made at an angle is considered ergonomic. The spatula confidently holds the weight of the solution. Hands get tired less than when using models without a bend.


The advantages of rollers should be considered in comparison with brushes:

  • uniformity of the layer and the absence of unnecessary transitions;
  • the ability to create a glossy or matte surface, depending on the type of coat and paint;
  • acceleration of processes, which allows to avoid drying of adjacent layers of paint and processing of the resulting transitions;
  • the possibility of using it in conjunction with an extension cord — a telescopic stick (standing on the floor in the middle of a small room, you can paint the entire ceiling).


The advantages of brushes are compared by analogy with rollers, although their joint use is more often practiced:

  • access to corners and places difficult to handle with a roller;
  • reduction of labor costs for bringing the tool in order after work;
  • the ability to beat thin straight and curved lines — this work cannot be done correctly with a roller;
  • controllable amount of paint and the number of streaks, quick fix without unnecessary consumption of material.

Other painting tools

Advantages are often self-sufficient and do not require comparisons:

    • Lace — saves hours of routine work on marking the premises. The lines drawn by the tool do not have kinks and are generally more accurate than pencil lines.
    • Trays — allow you to dose the consumption of paint, increase the convenience of working with rollers and brushes. You don’t have to rack your brains how to put a 25 cm roller into a small jar at an angle without spilling its contents. Ribs for squeezing excess paint eliminate streaks.
    • Telescopic poles — make it easier for the roller to reach high or distant points. Painting and wallpapering is possible without the use of a telescope, but working with self-leveling floors and liquid mastics in the absence of an extension becomes a problem.
    • Graters — not a single spatula can rub fresh plaster into a single plane, there will always be kinks and transitions. The trowel does not distort the leveled surfaces. It is impossible to spoil the plane with a tool — there is a point alignment along a single line.
    • scrapers — accelerate the cleaning of complex surfaces. More convenient than knives and spatulas due to trapezoidal blades. The tool quickly handles corners, seams and joints.
    • Mixers — provide uniform mixing of any types of solutions. When this tool is not available, the paint is often kneaded with a wooden stick, and dry mixes with a small spatula. The result is an uneven texture, lumps and transitions. The mixer neutralizes such problems by lifting the solution from the bottom. The purchase of this nozzle pays off on the very first day when working with quick-setting mixtures — alabaster or fugenfüller.

Due to the quick kneading, the solution has time to be produced for its intended purpose, and does not dry out in a bucket — savings on material can reach up to a quarter of the volume.

  • Mounting guns — provide uniform application of balloon sealants and adhesives. The dosing of the volume and the speed of the exit of the material from the tube contributes to the improvement of the quality of the finish.


Disadvantages and inconveniences should be considered in relation to the types of tools and materials of manufacture.


  • Models with pointed corners at the slightest bend of the blade can spoil the leveled plane for hours.
  • The tool in most cases has a «built-in» curvature — it gets bends during transportation, hanging on a showcase, during production. An uneven plane or gouges on the blade leave scratches and grout overlaps on the surface of the putty, which are difficult to repair.
  • Putty is applied to the walls with open fittings of sockets and switches. A wet mortar in combination with a plastic handle threatens the puttyer with constant electric shocks. Models with rubber grips do not have these problems, but they are in the category of professional tools, so they require unnecessary expenses.
  • Spatulas with low elasticity complicate the work. Applying solutions with such a tool is laborious, a lot of time is spent on correcting defects created by the spatula itself. The same set of problems is present with spatulas that are too flexible.


  • The tool is inconvenient for narrow places, sides and corners. The application of paint on such surfaces is accompanied by its invariable hit on perpendicular planes in the form of thick strokes or streaks. If they are not immediately noticed, a correct correction is not always possible.
  • When working with acrylic paints, increased attention is paid to the quality of the fur coat and the pressure of the roller. Acrylic does not allow the right to make a mistake when applying, sometimes one fallen hair forces the entire glossy ceiling to be repainted.
  • Seamed rollers leave noticeable plane transitions that cannot be corrected without resurfacing the surface.
  • Rubber models often have an incorrect roller plane — bulging or sagging. It is difficult to expel air bubbles with such a tool; when rolling wallpaper joints, increased pressure on the roller is required, which often causes plastic handles to break.


  • The tool is not suitable for setting a glossy surface — there are traces and transitions from the bristles even with the proper quality of the tool.
  • If the room is painted with a roller, and the brush is used only for processing internal corners, a mandatory additional rolling of the transition between layers is required. The difference in the texture and density of the application of the material without this procedure is noticeable to the naked eye.
  • The bristles on a weak adhesive base or under the influence of solvents and aggressive paints begin to split and fall out, leaving marks on the work surface.

Other tool

Plastic parts of painting tools are their weak point. They break, melt, crumble from old age or contrasting temperature conditions. Requires frequent replacement. If the body of the tool is plastic, it cannot be repaired if it is worn out. In this design, most paint baths and chopping cords are produced.

  • Telescopic poles — the latch often fails, leaving only the base length of the tool working.
  • Mounting guns — a tool with a tight pin stroke is more powerful and more convenient for work, but fails faster. Often pierces the rear membrane of the cylinders.
  • Mixers — paint models are mostly prone to corrosion. With prolonged use, impacts and work with finely abrasive mixtures, the coating peels off during kneading, spoiling the material.
  • scrapers — the specific shape of blades for replacement requires a mandatory visit to a hardware store, unlike knives. Working with the device involves strong pressure and pressure when cleaning hardened materials from surfaces. The handle of the scraper often does not withstand pressure.

How to choose spatulas and painting tools

The choice of a painting tool is based on the tasks that are to be solved with its help.

How to choose spatulas

The principle of choosing even spatulas is the same. Several pieces are clamped in the hand, the blades are set according to the viewing angle. In this position, any irregularities in the metal are noticeable. They are not critical when it comes to small spatulas, but they are critical when choosing a tool larger than 500 mm.

Pay attention to these options:

  • The presence of a reinforced platform around the blade — it eliminates the deflection of the spatula during operation and reduces the load on the hands.
  • Rubberized handle — spraying on plastic will not replace it. It prevents electric shocks that occur when working with wet solutions near exposed wiring, and also prevents the tool from slipping out.
  • Collapsible design — some spatulas are made in the form of a blade embedded in plastic, but there are models with screw fastening, they are more convenient for long-term operation, they allow you to adjust and control the state of the working surface.
  • Corrosion Resistant — Some trowels are glossy coated against rust. When working with abrasive mixtures, it will evaporate in a few hours. The next day, the spatula will be covered with dark spots that can leave unnecessary marks on putty or wallpaper. Stainless steel models are preferred.

How to choose rollers

General points for all nap rollers:

  • the quality of the fur coat — the threads should not fall out freely, the adhesive base must be strong;
  • in models with a seam, it will be necessary to check its integrity, the strength of the sheathing threads;
  • a single plane of the roller without distortions and kinks is checked by analogy with spatula blades — the tool is set with the long side along the viewing angle, the parameter is important when painting smooth surfaces;
  • a knitted coat is used for rough or rough surfaces — plaster or textured walls and ceilings, it absorbs a lot of paint, does not drip;
  • Paint rollers with woven fabric coats are suitable for smooth surfaces: doors, walls and ceilings with finishing putty.

The greater the need for texture, the higher the skin should be — rollers with a length of villi from 1 cm are selected. To give smoothness, short-haired models are used.

textured roller

How to choose brushes for painting

Choosing a brush comes down to determining the quality of the bristle setting:

  • The reliability of the adhesive base of the villi is checked; in case of mass loss, the brush is rejected.
  • It is important that the rim of the pile is protected from corrosion.
  • The evenness of the bristles and the ability to line up in a string are tested dry. These parameters are critical for painting work with a large number of diverse joints and bottlenecks.

If the tool is selected for occasional domestic use, its quality should not be the determining parameter. The correctness of work is ensured even by a tool from China with disposable parts. For professional purposes, work acceleration, wear resistance and tool convenience are important.

Which is better

Sets of optimal characteristics by tool types.

Which spatulas are better

  • reinforced blade clamping platform — the so-called two-component spatula;
  • material — stainless steel;
  • a smooth blade of medium flexibility without potholes and curved parts;
  • rubber handle, located at a slight angle;
  • a straight blade is more convenient than a trapezoidal one.

Which rollers are better

  • smooth plane of the roller, no edge protrusions at the edges;
  • the ability to change coats;
  • a handle made of strong plastic of a standard size — you can check the connector by mounting it on a telescopic stick;
  • fur coat without traces of tears and protruding villi;
  • the pin of the handle, on which the roller is mounted, must be made of stainless steel, otherwise a brown liquid will flow from the skin when working with glue and paint;
  • the end of the roller — in some models it is provided for covering it with a fur coat, it is not suitable for accurate work with corners if the pile length exceeds 0.5 cm, but it is appropriate in velor types.

Which brushes are best

  • Natural bristle brushes are soft and porous. They do not collapse under the influence of oil paints.
  • Synthetic bristles are preferred for working with latex paints.
  • The length of the bristles and the width of the base of the brush is selected for a specific type of work.
  • Coated wooden handles are more comfortable than plastic ones.

Other instrument

  • clamps and clamps should require medium effort — movable or too tight options will complicate the work;
  • soft plastic will quickly fail, hard variations are preferred;
  • the quality of fasteners, welds and joints in mounting guns determines their service life;

In all cases, tool models that are protected against corrosion are preferred — even if use with liquid solutions is not planned. When repairing, the humidity in the premises increases, long-term storage of the tool without protection leads to rust.


Features of using a painting tool do not contribute to its long service life. Liquid solutions, abrasive mixtures and chemicals with constant contact quickly render all types of devices unusable.

Timely cleaning and drying helps to extend the life of the tool. It is important to use tools in accordance with the type of work for which they are intended.

  • If the facade spatula is used to clean floor coverings, the blade will be bent, the corners will be bent, the tool will be unsuitable for puttying work. An uncleaned tool with pieces of dried mortar is also subject to distortion when trying to remove excess. Models that are not resistant to corrosion lose their gloss and become covered with rust spots.
  • Rollers used for priming and working with enamels must be washed immediately after use. It is enough to forget about timely cleaning once to ruin the tool. Working with latex paints also involves constant rinsing so that the material does not settle on the pile in indelible rubberized pieces.
  • Brushes after any work should be washed with solvents or running water, depending on the type of material with which the tool was used.


The painting tool is covered by a standard warranty, which in most cases does not exceed 12 months. Only devices with factory defects can be replaced. Incorrect operation and mechanical damage, including work with coarse-grained abrasive mixtures, are reasons for refusing warranty service.

In most cases, tool owners do not contact service centers. The price category of painting tools implies replacement when the device loses performance, without attempting to repair under warranty.

Faults and repairs

In a painting tool, the most rapid wear occurs on plastic elements — handles, clamps, body. Repair comes down to temporarily fixing the part with masking tape, electrical tape, or a suitable type of glue. Full repair is unprofitable in most cases.

  • Two-component spatulas — the correctness of the blade bend is straightened manually. The quality of the line is determined as when buying. Editing is required if during operation the corners of the spatula are bent or the working plane of the blade is bent. In models with molded plastic handles, such repairs can lead to a complete breakage of the instrument.
  • Mounting guns — the retainer or clamping ring at the bottom of the device wears out. In the first case, the part is replaced with an analogue or a temporary lever is cut out of plastic. Working with the tool will lose speed and comfort. In the event of a broken ring, correct repair without welding is not possible. As a temporary measure, a thick wire is placed instead of the ring.

Other types of painting tools must be disposed of and replaced in case of breakage.

Manufacturers of spatulas and painting tools

List of manufacturers in the budget and average price category.

BIBER is a German instrument manufacturer. Budget series of average quality. Painting tools: spatulas, rollers, brushes. Large dealer network.

FIT is a budget producer. It positions itself as Russian, but the head office of the company is located in Canada. At the heart of the range of electric and pneumatic models. Painting tools are represented by brushes and rollers. Manual models are not guaranteed. Website:

KRAFTOOL is a German manufacturer of all types of professional hand equipment. In the painting series there are one-component spatulas, brushes and scrapers. Warranty terms not announced. Website:

Santool is a wholesale supplier of hand tools, a Moscow-based company. It acts as an aggregator representing models from different manufacturers, but also develops its own brands. Website:

STAYER is a manufacturer from Germany. Specializes in all types of repair equipment. Painting accessories in the middle price segment, reinforced variations with an ergonomic design and rubberized handles. Warranty terms are stated only for power tools — 2 years. Website:

Zubr is a Russian manufacturer of budget equipment for domestic and professional needs. Spatulas are presented in plastic and two-component variations. The standard warranty period is 5 years, but only electric and pneumatic models are mentioned, conditions for painting tools are not specified. Website:

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construction mixer

A building mixer is a mechanical device designed to prepare a mixture that is homogeneous in composition and state of aggregation.

Construction mixer device

Principle of operation

In construction, there are a number of operations based on the “wet” method of finishing. They use aqueous suspensions of finishing materials. To create the latter, ready-made dry compositions are mixed with water and mixed.

With small volumes (within 3-7 liters), manual labor can be dispensed with. The processing of solutions with a volume of more than 8-10 liters is carried out using a special mechanical tool — a construction mixer.

Algorithm for preparing an aqueous solution:

  1. A dry mixture is poured into a previously prepared container and closed with water. The technology for preparing the solution is indicated on the package.
  2. The nozzle, installed on the power tool, mixes the mixture to a homogeneous state of aggregation. A break is made.
  3. After the time recommended by the manufacturer, the solution is mixed again with a mixer and then transferred to work. The nozzle is washed from the remnants of the mixture.

Types of construction mixers


Mechanisms are classified according to the type of drive:

  • Rhand mixerequipped with a special nozzle. The physical strength of a person is used.
  • power tool — drill, puncher or specialized device. Comes with various fittings.

The use of human power allows you to process up to 1-5 kg ​​of dry mix. The electric tool differs in productivity and economy of physical forces of the operator.

According to the layout, the units are divided into single- and twin-screw. The latter are characterized by increased power and performance. In addition, rotating in opposite directions, the nozzles stabilize the position of the mixer in one position.

The main technical indicator of a construction mixer is the ability to mix a specific volume of mortar in a single operation. It depends on the power of the tool.



Since the mixer is equipped with an electric motor, its power is measured in kilowatts. The larger the number, the greater the performance of the tool:

  • To solve problems within the «home» repair, a household series is produced. Power does not exceed 1 kW. Most electric drills, rotary hammers and small mixers fall into this category.
  • Professionals performing construction and finishing works need a tool with a power of more than 1 kW. The drill does not fall into this group due to its specialized characteristics.

Perforators are equipped with speed adjustment mechanisms, so they are used to prepare aqueous suspensions of putties, plasters or tile adhesives.

Preparation of solutions is an additional function of the tool. It is suitable for short-term operations related to the preparation of mixtures.

  • For the processing of significant volumes (up to 20-200 liters per batch), a construction mixer is intended. Its design is designed to work with heavy and viscous mixtures. The power of the tool is 2.5-3 kW.

The weight

The weight

The mass of the construction mixer varies from 2 kg (drill) to 10-15 kg (professional series). A typical unit for solving household tasks weighs 2-2.5 kg (drill or puncher). Semi-professional tool — up to 7-10 kg.



With the help of a mixer, mixing or preparation of liquid formulations or viscous suspensions is carried out:

  • acrylic primers;
  • paints and varnishes on organic solvents or a water basis;
  • bituminous mastics;
  • putties on polymer, gypsum or cement bases;
  • cement-sand or gypsum plasters;
  • adhesive compositions for tiled ceramic and porcelain tiles, glass mosaics, natural or artificial stone;
  • light and medium concretes with a composition of binder, sand and crushed stone.

To carry out the main working functions, the tool has a number of indicators:

Speed ​​control system

Speed ​​control system

The built-in electronic mechanism allows you to automatically adjust the engine speed. This is necessary to maintain a constant mode of operation, which is disturbed during the mixing process.

When mixed with water, the components enter into a chemical reaction. A complex composition appears with other physical and technical properties. One of them — viscosity — resists the displacement of particles relative to each other.

Another — the mass of the mixture — requires an increase in power to move part of the solution.

These and other factors through the nozzle affect the engine, and the number of revolutions begins to fall. The automatic regulator does not allow this process to develop to the full extent, maintaining the optimal mode of operation.

Professional models are equipped with such a rotation speed stabilizer.

Torque rating

Torque rating

The torque shows what internal forces arise in the solution when it is stirred. The higher the indicator, the more dense and viscous the mixture is able to process the mixer.

The stirring force is directly related to the number of revolutions, and the maximum torque corresponds to the minimum rotation speed and vice versa.

A household series with a power of up to 1 kW produces 10-20 Nm. Such efforts are sufficient for mixing primers, paints, putties. With interruptions in work, you can prepare plaster mixtures or tile adhesive.

For heavy mixtures and concrete solutions, a force of up to 50-100 Nm will be required. This corresponds to units with a capacity of 1.2-2.5 kW. Such tools belong to the semi-professional and professional class.

If the manufacturer did not indicate torque data in the accompanying documentation, then it can be calculated independently using the formula:

M = (P*30)/(n*3.14), where

  • M is the torque in Nm;
  • P — power according to technical documentation in watts;
  • n is the number of revolutions, rpm.


construction mixer

Initial data:

  • power 2000 watts;
  • work is carried out at 750 rpm, then:

M \u003d (2000 * 30) / (750 * 3.14) ≈ 25.5 Nm.

Reducing the speed to 500 units:

M \u003d (2000 * 30) / (500 * 3.14) ≈ 38.2 Nm.


construction mixer

Building electric mixer available with one speed or equipped with a two-speed gearbox. At rates of 750-850 rpm, it is more convenient to work with liquid formulations.

They mix faster, the suspension does not thicken and does not delaminate. Values ​​less than 500 rpm are used for the preparation of heavy and viscous solutions.

Single speed models are available in the light series with power up to 1 kW. A two-speed tool has a power of 1.2-1.5 kW. In first gear, the mixer produces up to 650 rpm, but this increases the torque.

The second speed is designed for mixing liquid formulations and light mixtures.

Some models provide additional modes of operation, useful devices, devices.

Smooth start — operating mode, providing jerk-free start of the engine, «soft» spin-up. Due to this, it is possible to avoid the dispersion of the components of the dry mixture or the splashing of the liquid component of the solution.

The peak load is reduced. Helps increase tool life and ease of use.

Electronic engine protection. Includes:

  • automatic shutdown of the electric motor when the brushes are worn;
  • interruption of work when the unit overheats;
  • stop operation at critical loads.

Hand protection — this is the layout of the handles and equipping them with anti-vibration material. The ring version in the form of two brackets is typical for household appliances.

The professional series is equipped with a T-shaped design. This handle is more comfortable when handling heavy mixtures.



The composition of the mixer, in addition to the engine, body and handle, includes a nozzle and a device for fixing it in the tool.

Nozzle attachment method

There are five main fixation methods:

  1. Threaded. The nozzle is attached to the spindle by means of a threaded connection. The most common for a specialized tool. It is reliable, but inconvenient to use.
  1. jaw chuck. It is used as an accessory for electric drills or mixer drills. Fixing of interchangeable devices in the cartridge is carried out with a special key.

It can be used for preparing light and medium solutions or mixing liquid formulations.

  1. SDS connection. Common for perforators. Provides a secure fit, but requires a similar design for the nozzle. Suitable for work with putty, plaster, adhesive composition.
  1. fast fix system. It is a quick release chuck. A similar type of fixation is used on screwdrivers. There is a drawback — when working with heavy mixtures, the edges of the whisk are quickly erased.

When using the reverse, there is a risk of unfixing (unwinding) of the device in the cartridge.

construction mixer

  1. Morse taper. The most reliable way to attach the nozzle in the mixer. Common among professional tools. Allows you to work with all types of solutions.

In addition to the tool itself, the package includes:

  • accompanying documentation — passport, instruction manual, warranty card;
  • a set of specialized keys;
  • package.



In the process of work, protective equipment, consumables, additional devices will be required:

  • replaceable electric cable having different lengths;
  • goggles and gloves;
  • solution container;
  • interchangeable nozzles.

Attachment for construction mixer

For mixing aqueous compositions and preparing solutions, various types of mixers are used:

  • Propeller. The screw is made in the form of a three-bladed whisk. Outwardly, it resembles a ship propeller or a fan impeller.

It is used for mixing liquid acrylic primers, water-based paints or paints and varnishes. It is used complete with mixers of a household and professional series.

  • cross. The nozzle is equipped with straight vertical blades made of round bar. It creates a horizontal flow, due to which air almost does not get into the mixture and the components of the solution do not oxidize.

It is used in work with heavy and viscous compositions.

  • Spiral. It is right handed or left handed. The first moves the solution up. It is used for adhesive compositions on a cement or gypsum basis, as well as light and medium concrete. The second moves the mixture down.


Prevents splashing. Suitable for putties and suspensions with mineral filler. For a tool equipped with a reverse, it is enough to have one of two nozzles.

By changing the direction of rotation of the screw, a change in the direction of the flow of the solution is achieved. Used in mortar mixer.

  • double sided screw. Represents a combination with opposite screws. The bottom one lifts the solution up. The other reverses the flow direction.

Thus, high-quality mixing of the composition is ensured. It is used for work with liquid or non-viscous compositions.

  • Universal auger. Combines the properties of other nozzles. Let’s apply to processing of liquid solutions, easy and average mixes.

Some models of nozzles are equipped with support rings or discs. This allows you not to keep the mixer on weight, but to fix it on the bottom of the bowl.

Taking into account the mass of the stirrer itself (4-8 kg) and the forces that arise during operation, the load from them, which falls on a person, can lead to his rapid fatigue. It is advisable to use such a nozzle in a concrete mixer.

The fixture length is 400 or 600 mm. Extension rods are used if necessary. Dimensional step in Ø: 80-100-120-140-160 mm.

For work with paint and varnish products, it is preferable to choose stainless steel. This will eliminate the risk of oxidation and distortion in the color of the processed material.

It is advisable to use the same steel in the preparation of light and medium mortars containing mineral fillers. The latter, as a result of friction with stirring, gradually erase the top layer.



The additional equipment of the tool with various options and additional functions helps to increase the convenience in work and increase productivity.

For example, the drilling operation added to the Build Mixer allows vertical holes to be made in soft materials. Useful when building or repairing a house made of wood. It is sufficient to equip the machine with a suitable cutting attachment.


  • Starting current control. Stabilizes the engine speed at idle when immersed in the mixture and in the working position when removed from the solution.

In these modes, there is a change in effort, the engine may begin to increase speed, which will lead to splashing of the components.

  • Speed ​​lock. On some models, a locking mechanism is provided. It is an additional key that fixes the selected rotation speed.
  • Rack. It is a metal structure that combines an electric mixer, a mixing bowl and a support for them. The container is made in the form of a cone-shaped funnel with a hole at the bottom.

This scheme allows you to install a device for preparing the mixture next to the finishing object.

  • Additional handle. For household series tools (drills or rotary hammers), an additional handle is available. It allows you to fix the mixer with a second hand, which makes it easier to control when working with viscous solutions.



A mixer is a highly specialized tool, the design of which is designed for the loads that arise during the preparation of building mixtures. During drilling work, mainly axial forces occur, because the drill is good for mixing liquid solutions.

The hammer drill is stronger, but it cannot handle a busy schedule of working with concrete compositions.

The radical forces arising during the preparation of solutions are taken into account in the design of the construction mixer:

  • the ability to work with solutions with a volume of 100-200 liters;
  • the duration of the primary mixing does not exceed 10 minutes;
  • the composition of the solutions varies from water-based paint compositions to medium concrete mixes with mineral fillers.

A professional mixer can be an alternative to a concrete mixer. For it, the mains voltage is 220 V.

The introduction of the drilling function into the list of operations allows you to create a mobile machine for creating vertical holes. This allows:

  • make through and blind holes in the tree;
  • drilling soil under a columnar or pile foundation;
  • to remove the soil under the supports for the fence.

But for the last two operations, a power of at least 1.5 kW is required.



The main disadvantages are directly related to the technical characteristics of the unit, with an increase in power and productivity, they increase:

  • overall dimensions and weight;
  • noise at work;
  • price.

The introduction of the drilling function partially affects the main purpose of the mixer — the preparation of mixtures. This is due to the fact that the modes of these two operations differ:

  • there are different loads;
  • work is carried out at other speeds;
  • for drilling, the function of feeding the drill in the course of drilling is necessary.

How to choose a construction mixer?

Which is better to choose

To select a tool, you first need to determine the types, scope of work, frequency of use of the unit. This affects power and cost.

When repairing your own home, a drill or hammer drill with a power of up to 700-800 watts is enough. This is enough to prepare:

  • plasters;
  • putties;
  • tile adhesive;
  • self-leveling floor;
  • mixing primers or paints.

Professional teams need a construction mixer with a power of 1-1.2 kW. With such a tool, it is possible to process solutions from 200-300 or more liters per shift.

For work with heavy viscous mixtures, it is better to opt for a two-spindle unit with a two-speed gearbox.

Building your own home is like a mixer drill. Power from 1000 watts. The presence of a two-speed gearbox. Planting one nozzle. Cope with concrete solutions. Possible drilling of soil, drilling of wood.

Imported or domestic?

construction mixer

  • With relatively the same characteristics, Russian products are cheaper.
  • Performance of comparable operations — domestic products are almost as good as imported analogues.
  • Service. The repair network is better developed for local equipment, there are fewer problems with components and spare parts.
  • Reliability, durability, quality. Alas, the imported «branded» instrument is still ahead in terms of these indicators.

For the preparation of small volumes of mixtures, solving household problems, it is more profitable to use domestic products. For private craftsmen, products with the trademark Fiolent, Interskol, Bison are suitable.

For professional teams with intensive use of the tool, it is better to opt for a Bosch, Makita, Hitachi tool.

How to use a construction mixer?


The construction mixer must be used for its intended purpose, otherwise there is a risk of its rapid failure. Rules for using the tool and safety precautions are given in the accompanying documentation.

Before starting work, regardless of the experience of handling such equipment, it is necessary to read the instruction manual and further be guided by the recommendations contained in it.

This will make it possible to use free services in case of emergencies that may arise in the course of work.

The list of the main recommendations of manufacturers:

  • work only with a serviceable tool;
  • before starting work, be sure to check that all components and components are in good condition, check the presence of oil in the gearbox;
  • avoid constant peak loads;
  • at the end of work or a long break, be sure to rinse the nozzle on the mixer with water, cleaning it from the layers of the solution; the same requirement applies to the instrument as a whole;
  • store the tool in a dry, ventilated area.



The warranty period for the mixer is set by the manufacturer and is indicated in the accompanying documentation. In the instruction manual or other document, the following must be indicated:

  • rules for filling out and the availability of a warranty card when applying for services;
  • conditions for accepting a tool for warranty repair;
  • the legal basis of the warranty conditions is the current legislation of the Russian Federation, in particular, the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and the law «On Protection of Consumer Rights».

The warranty period is calculated from the date of sale of the product through the distribution network, which must be recorded in the accompanying documentation.

Warranty obligations are valid during the entire service period and apply to defects caused by production reasons during the production of products.

When buying goods in a distribution network, you must carefully familiarize yourself with the completeness of the delivery, the serviceability of the product and the correct execution of the accompanying documentation.

Faults, repairs, spare parts

Faults, repairs, spare parts

In case of equipment failure during the warranty period, it is advisable to seek help from branded or accredited service centers.

After the service period has passed and with a good knowledge of the tool, it is quite possible to repair it on your own.

The most worn parts of the product:

  • collector brushes;
  • buttons for switching on, switching, fixing, etc.;
  • chuck;
  • nozzle for the construction mixer.

In the event of a breakdown of the cartridge or mixer nozzle, these parts are replaced with new ones. You can buy them in specialized retail chains.

Brushes, buttons, switches are available in the service departments. In many models of construction power tools, there is direct access to the assembly in which the brushes are located.

This allows, without disassembling the entire body of the mixer, to quickly replace the graphite brushes of the electric motor.

Buttons, switches, latches also have a quick-release connection with the main body, which makes it easy to dismantle and replace them with new ones. Such operations are described in the instruction manual or product data sheet.

In case of damage to the electrical part, in particular the electric motor or electronic devices, service will be required in the service and repair department.

construction mixer

An attempt to intervene without the appropriate knowledge can lead to the complete failure of individual components or the tool as a whole.

A small mechanical damage to the electric cable is eliminated by connecting the damaged cores and restoring the insulation.

But it should be remembered that during start-up or peak loads, a significant current may occur, which will break through the junction of the repaired wire. For safety reasons, it is better to install a new cable.

It is easier to do this with a plug-in connection; for this, it is enough to purchase a new power cord and connect it to the tool. The absence of a connector will require disassembling the case, dismantling the damaged cable and attaching a new one.

A construction mixer is an expensive tool. An attempt to repair complex components on your own can lead to the complete loss of the unit. Therefore, it is better to waste time and spend money on repairs in a specialized center.

Construction Mixer Manufacturers


In our country, products manufactured under the following trademarks have proven themselves well:

  • board, German company. The brand was registered in 2001. It specializes in the production of construction tools. Production facilities are located in China.
  • Bosch, a world-famous concern that produces a variety of products for construction purposes. The headquarters is in Germany, but production is scattered around the world. Russia receives products from China.


  • Hitachi, international company. The head office is located in Japan. The widest range of industrial and household products. One of the directions is the production of construction equipment.
  • Interskol, a brand of a Russian company. The center is located in Yelabuga, Tatarstan. Specialization — production of equipment for various industries. Produces power tools for professional and household series.
  • Makita — one of the largest companies in the production of tools for working with wood, concrete, materials for construction and industry. The assortment of the enterprise includes more than 1000 items.

The company is headquartered in Japan. Production facilities — in the UK, Germany and other countries.


  • Stomer — the company is part of the SBM group corporation. Specializes in the production of professional power tools. The line includes models for private craftsmen and professional teams.
  • bison is a Russian company headquartered in Mytishchi. Manual, mechanized, power tools, components and consumables — the main nomenclature of the company.

Clients: manufacturing plants, utilities, professional craftsmen and hobbyists.

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Building level

The building level is a tool that detects the slope of surfaces. Suitable for indoor and outdoor use.

How they work

The algorithm of operation of any of them is reduced to the choice of the installation point and the place for measuring the level. The remaining options depend on the particular type of tool and can be combined.

The building level helps:

  1. Determine the verticality or horizontality of a given surface — in order to establish a further scope of work and its necessity.
  2. To find out in which direction the tilt occurred, in some models its exact size is also available.
  3. Set clear guidelines when marking surfaces — before installing frames or furniture.
  4. Calculate the volume of materials — for this, the arithmetic mean of the levels of different points on the same surface is used.
  5. Determine a single level in different rooms — often required when installing ceilings or windows.

In low-rise construction or apartment renovation, manual tool variations are more often used. These are devices without complex electronics that do not require special skills. Professionals use several types at the same time.

Types and functions of building levels

hydraulic levels

The functioning of this type of instrument is based on the law of physics about communicating vessels. Structurally, hydraulic levels are two flasks connected by a transparent tube.


  • This is an accurate view of the levels, but it is important to keep the hose free of kinks and have good eyesight.
  • Suitable for checking slopes simultaneously in different rooms.
  • As a rule, they require pair work.

To bring the device into working condition, it is enough to fill it with water so that the upper meniscus of the liquid reaches the middle of both flasks, and no air bubbles remain in the tube.

Bubble building levels

Regardless of the size and design features, the principle of the device is the same. At least two flasks are built into the body of the level, where small air bubbles “float” in the liquid. Focusing on them, they check if there is a slope of the planes.


  • The liquid in most cases will be industrial alcohol. Allows you to measure with an accuracy of 1 mm / m — this is the industry standard.
  • «Air» bubbles of solid acrylic suggest greater precision. Accuracy 0.5 mm/m.

Some models of bubble levels are equipped with flasks on a rotating base. This allows you to work with inclined planes. Profile shapes are in the form of a box, a trapezoid and with one measuring plane cast Shark (shark). Part of the tool is equipped with end elements that prevent breakage during falls.

Laser building levels

The convenience of this equipment lies in the non-contact use and in a large area of ​​marking coverage.


  • The pendulum of devices is leveled after unlocking. It is desirable to set the base plane horizontally.
  • Manufacturers offer an additional mounting tripod, but its dimensions are not enough for marking at a height. In this case, a bar is used, which is fixed between the floor and another horizontal surface. The platform on which the tool is installed moves along it.
  • In bright light, the laser beam is not visible to the naked eye. To resolve the issue, glasses with glasses in the red color range are used.

Part of the laser levels produces static vertical and horizontal lines in a limited sector. An alternative option using a dot running in a circle allows marking from all sides simultaneously.

Magnetic building levels

Magnetic levels are visually indistinguishable from bubble levels. The difference is noticeable only on the lower ends. This option is equipped with magnets for easy work with metal surfaces.


  • Bar magnets are more commonly used in polymer levels, in combination with a V-groove for ease of use on pipelines.
  • Ceramic magnets or ferrites have been the industry standard in levels up until recent years.
  • Rare earth — most aluminum models now come with this type of magnet. They are up to 10 times stronger than ceramic.

This type of level is more often used for work related to the installation of frames for drywall, as it is conveniently attached to ceiling and rack profiles, leaving hands free.

Optical building levels

An optical level or level is used in industrial facilities or in the construction of houses. The kit includes a special tripod, without which the use of the instrument is unproductive. Installation comes down to mounting, focusing and centering.


  • Centering is needed for point-to-point measurements. It is carried out using a construction plumb line attached to the bottom of the tripod.
  • Focusing — the telescope is aimed at the rail, with the help of an adjusting screw, clarity is adjusted. The eyepiece ring defines the reticle.

After adjustment, the height marks are taken. The collected data are summarized, their arithmetic mean is calculated. It will be the mark of the base from the horizon of the instrument.


Each type has its own set of advantages:

  • hydraulic levels. They support measurements in different rooms, when the initial level is hidden by partitions or heavy structures. This functionality is not available in other models.
  • Bubble. Easy to install and use, light weight and dimensions. Possibility of use for measuring the level and at the same time checking the plane of the wall or floor.
  • Magnetic. Do not require additional fixation when working with metal. They have a full set of advantages of bubble models.
  • Laser. Supports simultaneous vertical and horizontal measurements. The coverage range is higher than any of the manual models. Automation of routine processes.
  • Optical. Applicability in open spaces, in the construction of roads and large facilities. Functionality, saving time and labor costs. When measuring at a distance, the accuracy does not decrease.


Disadvantages and inconveniences also depend on the type of tool:

  • Hydro. Mobscure and difficult to use. The routine processes of filling, draining, unwinding and forcing out bubbles are time consuming. Not suitable for vertical planes.
  • Bubble. Often goes astray, adjustment is often not available. Not suitable for work over long distances and areas. In adjacent rooms, the correct level cannot be determined.
  • Magnetic. The same disadvantages as the bubble. Magnets often protrude from the plane of the rib — when measuring, fresh paint or putty can be damaged. Some models are less stable than bubble ones. Frequent failure of magnets is also a disadvantage.
  • laser. Requires a flat surface. The pendulum during transportation often fails. With distance, the diameter of the beam increases, which affects the accuracy. Plane measurements can only be made using optional accessories.
  • Optic. Adjustment is time consuming and requires skill. For domestic purposes, the functionality is redundant — neither the time costs nor the costs are justified.

How to choose a building level

For most types of levels, accuracy will be the defining indicator, so checking its correctness is important.

bubble and magnetic

The same design also implies uniform methods for assessing the correctness of indications.

To check a horizontal flask, you need:

  1. Place the tool on a flat surface.
  2. Make two marks: at the end of the level and along — near the horizontal ampoule.
  3. Note the position of the air bubble.
  4. Turn the spirit level 180° and set in the same place according to the previously made marks.
  5. Check the position of the air bubble. Any difference in its position before and after the level flip indicates that the instrument is inaccurate.
  6. Repeat the test even if the readings match.

To check a vertical flask, set the level on a door frame or a flat wall, further steps are similar to horizontal measurements.


In this type of measuring instruments there are no structural details responsible for the accuracy of measurements, but there are nuances that should be considered when choosing:

  • Hose length — you should not choose it in reserve, because the expulsion of air bubbles and straightening of the tubes can turn this advantage into a problem.
  • Pay attention to the tightness of the protective caps. Water should not pour out — this will interfere with work.
  • It is worth checking the integrity of the tube and the connections with the flasks.

An additional parameter is the flexibility of the hose, but it is difficult to evaluate it without having experience with this type of level.


The choice of a laser level involves reconciliation of a number of indicators:

  • Measurement error — should not exceed 3 mm per 10 meters.
  • Self Alignment — Test multiple models. The preferred option is the pendulum of which levels out faster than in analogues.
  • Range — marked as a radius or diameter. To avoid confusion, specify what type of distance is indicated. The laser is responsible for the same parameter. The 532nM green beam is suitable for most measurements.

In addition, the integrity of the instrument and the absence of mechanical damage are checked.


You need to choose a level taking into account the tasks ahead and the features of future use. They are divided into three classes: high-precision, basic and technical.


  • An air damper is suitable for outdoor applications, while vibration mode requires the use of a magnetic version.
  • To perform tasks in a limited space, the defining parameter should be the smallest sighting distance. For large objects, models with the maximum magnification range of the telescope are preferred.
  • Class I or II leveling at construction sites is usually not required, but it should be borne in mind that only high-precision instruments are capable of performing it.
  • It is easier to prepare a tool with a compensator for work due to the self-alignment of the sighting axis.

Which is better

The answers to these questions will help you choose the best type of tool for your current tasks.

What basic functions should the level perform?

  • The functionality of the bubble level will cover all the problems of household tiling, but it is impossible for them to correctly measure the level of ceilings in different rooms.
  • Laser — will save hours of work on marking walls for frames and wallpaper, but is not suitable for determining the correct level of the planes.
  • Optical — will support accurate calculations for laying tracks, leveling surfaces, but it will not work to hang shelves inside a kitchen cabinet.
  • Hydro — will help to perform a single marking of ceilings, but it is useless for mounting wall frames.

Where will it be used? Indoors, outdoors, or both?

  • Most of the electronic models are not designed to work outdoors or in aggressive environments (rain, snow).
  • Please note that in addition to the laser level, you will need an outdoor detector, as the beams will not be visible in daylight.

What is the required measurement accuracy?

Industrial lasers and levels have mechanical or digital counters, there is support for recording the angle of inclination in 0.01% increments. For less accurate measurements, basic models of hand tools are selected.

Are additional features needed?

A professional-grade tool, accessories necessary for comfortable work. But the functionality of household and industrial models may not have significant differences.

How to use the building level

Features of use depend on the type of tool. There are no single operating methods.

How to use the hydraulic level

  1. Carefully unroll the tubes and fill the instrument with clean, running water through one of the flasks while holding the other one above. Try to fill without stopping so that there are no extra air gaps.
  2. Check the correct filling — the tubes should be evenly convex. Drive the rest of the air bubbles with light clicks to the flasks until completely out. If done correctly, the risks will rise to the same height when measured. This can be checked by placing the flasks close to each other.
  3. Lock the lids.
  4. The next step is to work together. One person holds the flask, and the second goes with a hose to a place or room, the level of which needs to be compared with the current one.
  5. When both are in place, the caps are removed from the flasks. It is important to do everything at the same time and at approximately the same height — otherwise there will be overflows.
  6. One person holds the flask against a pre-made mark, making sure that the center of the meniscus of the water corresponds to it.
  7. The partner carefully raises or lowers the flask, thereby adjusting the level of filling with water.
  8. When everything is leveled, a level mark is made by the second participant.

Precautions: avoid kinks and mechanical damage to the hose.

How to use the bubble and magnetic level

  • Place the instrument on the surface of the object whose horizontality is to be checked.
  • If the air bubble is to the right of the line, the object is tilted down to the left.
  • If the bubble is to the left of the line, the object is tilted down to the right.

The vertical level is found by analogy.

Maintenance and care consist in the timely cleaning of the instrument, especially after measurements on wet plaster surfaces.

Precautions are limited to protecting the instrument from bumps and falls.

How to use the laser level

  • Place the instrument on a tripod or a flat surface.
  • If the model is manual, make sure the bubbles indicate the level. Otherwise, find the screws on the side and adjust them to the required correctness. Self-Leveling — Allow the instrument to self-level after installation, typically 30 seconds.
  • Turn on the device. The device will emit a beam that reflects on surfaces. Depending on the type of laser level, it can be a dot, a line, or several horizontal or vertical intersections.

If the device has not been used for a long time or has been dropped, calibration will be required. Mounting on a rail or tripod is carried out using a clamp or clamps from the kit.

Precautionary measures:

  • do not look at the beam itself, do not direct it at children or animals;
  • do not use the tool in the rain;
  • do not carry with an unlocked pendulum — many models warn about this with a beep or laser blinking.

How to use the optical level

Before use, check the stability of the tripod. Tighten the mount with the tool. Make sure the foot screws are not too tight on the footing.


  • Hold the adjusting screws between your thumb and forefinger and turn them simultaneously in opposite directions. Observe the movement in the graduated flask.
  • The air bubble should be centered on the circular level window.
  • Centering on a point is carried out by a plumb line mounted on a tripod screw. Then the level is shifted along the head.
  • Centering is complete when the plumb bob is above the target point.


  • Aim the telescope at a sheet of paper or other light object.
  • Tighten the eyepiece until the desired sharpness appears — the sight should be clear.
  • With the tube pointed at the supplied rail, adjust the focus with the knob.
  • When properly adjusted, the scale of the leveling staff and the crosshair of the sight do not move one after the other.
  • After focusing, hold the level on a specific target.

Use the focus knob to add sharpness.

Precautions are the same as for laser models, but additional care must be taken when handling the lens.


Standard warranty obligations exclude cases of mechanical damage.

Bubble, magnetic and hydro — related to hand tools. They rarely have warranties longer than 12 months. Most manufacturers do not provide detailed conditions for these types of tools.

Laser – depending on the manufacturer and the category of the tool (household or professional), a guarantee is provided from 1 to 3 years.

Optical — standard warranty period of one year. But the narrowness of the niche forces manufacturers to go to tricks. Some give a guarantee on the tool up to 25 years.

The warranty period can be counted from the date of purchase or shipment. In the second case, it is appropriate to clarify how much time the tool spent in the warehouse.

Faults and repairs

Different parts turn out to be weak links — their set depends on the type of tool.

Bubble and magnetic

The main problem is related to the loss of measurement accuracy.

  1. Broken flask with bubble — the readings will no longer be accurate, the error can reach several cm per meter. In budget models, bulb adjustment is not provided — the tool is unsuitable for work with this malfunction. In other cases, tightening the screw fasteners or fixing clips will return the level to the correctness of the readings. During setup, calibration is performed in the same way as when selecting a tool.
  2. Bent profile — this happens with bumps and falls. The tool cannot be repaired, it will no longer give accurate readings.
  3. Crack in the protective glass of the flask — in models of a collapsible type, the part changes to an analogue. Solid cast levels in this case cannot be repaired.

Minor problems: breakage of protective pads and handles, falling off of magnets are corrected by replacing the obsolete part with a new one.

hydraulic levels

Malfunctions of hydraulic levels are reduced to three types:

  1. Broken or cracked hose. Occurs as a result of mechanical damage or freezing of an instrument filled with water. As a temporary measure, you can seal it with a layer of nail polish and wrap it with electrical tape. Complete repair and replacement of the hose is often unprofitable — the costs are comparable to the acquisition of a new hydraulic level.
  2. Cracks in flasks — temporary measures are similar to those presented in the previous paragraph, but instead of electrical tape there should be a transparent material in order to see the rizki. Replacement may not be required in mild cases. In serious cases, it is necessary to change, as the defect will affect the accuracy of the instrument.
  3. Breakage or loss of protective caps is the simplest case. They can be replaced with plastic soda caps.


Correction is often impossible to perform independently due to the need for a special tool.

  1. pendulum shift — the tool does not work correctly, with deviations in horizontal and vertical measurements. This happens after the device falls or is carried with an unlocked pendulum. Restoration will require an offset adjustment. Such damage is not covered by the warranty.
  2. Beam does not burn — the malfunction is caused by a broken wiring or incorrect operation of the batteries. In the first case, you will need to remove the cover of the device and replace the flexible wiring going to the pendulum. In the second case, unclenching and stripping contacts or changing batteries is more often enough. Both options are self-repairable.
  3. Instability of readings — as a rule, it will be necessary to change the suspension bearing. The case is rare, but guaranteed in the absence of mechanical damage.
  4. Buttons don’t work — there are several options for breakdown, of which only clogging of contacts can be repaired by yourself. The keyboard may not work as a result of frequent use in dusty environments. Clogged contacts will need to be cleaned mechanically. The procedure can be performed at home.

In difficult cases, the keyboard will need to be replaced. When the coating is membrane, it will not be possible to repair the device without special skills.


Problems of optical levels are solved systematically or by replacing parts. Repair with improvised tools is often not applicable.

  • Sticking compensator — To solve the problem, the standard calibration procedure is performed several times. In case of gross errors, service maintenance of the tool will be required.
  • Cracked lens or mirror. Purchase of a similar part is required. The optical lens can be replaced by yourself.
  • Adjustment is broken — you need to calibrate the device. The screw fastener is loosened, the plate with the grid is aligned. To do this, the horizontal thread is placed perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the tool, and the vertical thread is set along the plumb line.

Problems in the operation of electronics, serious mechanical damage, site repair or torsion bars will require the intervention of specialists.


Manufacturers are presented in different price categories. The correlation between prices and quality is often insignificant.

AD is a manufacturer of diagnostic and measuring equipment. The company is multinational. Digital and shockproof level types, professional tool. Warranties are not specified. Website:

Bosch is a German manufacturer of equipment. Rotary, linear and point laser levels, digital levels. The tool is available in professional (blue) and home (green) formats. Standard warranty. Valid for 12 months from the date of purchase. In addition, there is a long-term promotion under which warranty cases with mechanical confirmation of the tool are recognized. Website:

FIT — budgetary manufacturer of power tools. Torpedo and laser levels are available in the minimum configuration. The tool is certified, a network of service centers. Warranty terms not announced. Website:

Kapro is an international manufacturer from Israel specializing in measuring instruments. Digital, magnetic, aluminum levels with an ergonomic design, comply with Russian standards, are certified. The warranty period is 12 months. Website:

KRAFTOOL is a manufacturer of professional hand tools. Magnetic, digital, foldout and box models available. Warranty and certification not announced. Website:

Stabila is a manufacturer from Germany. The company specializes in measuring instrument. The range includes 120 construction, including telescopic and special models. No warranty provided. Website:

Stanley — hand and power tools, including measuring ones. Average price category. Certification provided. Plain and magnetic models are available. Warranty not stated. Website:

Zubr — a budget manufacturer of household and professional tools, but measuring instruments are presented in the middle price category. Basic and enhanced models. Warranty not stated. Website:

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Welding is the process of permanently joining metals by heating and fusing them. For this, a special tool is used — a welding machine.

Types of welding machines

There are the following types of welding:

  • manual arc (MMA);
  • argon-arc (TIG);
  • semi-automatic (MIG/MAG);
  • spot (SPOT);
  • plasma cutting (PLASMA).

Manual Arc Welding Machine (MMA)
Manual Arc (MMA)

For welding, an arc is used that burns between the weld pool and the electrode. The latter is a metal rod with a special coating.

The arc is formed when the end of the electrode touches the metal to be processed. In this case, at the point of contact, the surface begins to melt. A weld pool is formed. The electrode is also melted and acts as a material for the weld.

By-products of the process are gas and slag. The second protects the seam from the effects of the external environment.

After metal processing, the slag is removed.

Argon arc welding machine (TIG)
Argon arc (TIG)

It is used mainly for working with non-ferrous metals. Effective in aluminum processing. It is a kind of alliance of arc and gas welding.

TIG — Tungstreng Inert Gas. Translated means manual arc welding with non-consumable electrodes in an inert gas environment. Electrodes for it are made from tungsten, a refractory metal with a high boiling point (about 5900 ° C). Of the inert gases, argon is used.

During welding, argon does not allow oxygen to oxidize the metal surface, which positively affects its characteristics.

Semiautomatic welding machine (MIG/MAG)
Welders 1

It has a similar technology to work with TIG welding. The difference is that fusible wire is used as the electrode material, and a mixture of gases is used as a protective medium.

The most common mixture is argon and carbon dioxide.

The first provides protection from oxygen, and the second speed of penetration.

This type of welding has several advantages:

  • ease of development;
  • high speed of work;
  • the ability to make a long seam, without the need for stops and frequent ignition of the arc;
  • no need to clean the finished seam.

Spot welding machine (SPOT)
Spot (SPOT)

It is used to connect thin sheets of metal. Widely used in the automotive industry.

Sheets of metal are placed between a clamp of electrodes through which a high current is passed. As a result, the contact point is heated above the melting point and a strong bond is formed.

Plasma welding machine (PLASMA)
Plasma cutting (PLASMA)

It is a cutting of metal by means of a hot plasma jet. An inert gas heated by an electric arc to a plasma state is supplied through a nozzle under high pressure.

The operating temperature reaches 30,000 °C, which makes it possible to cut even refractory metals at high speed.

Among the welding machines, 2 large groups stand out:

  • welding machines for the home;
  • professional welding machines.

Household are intended for private use. They operate on 220V and are designed for low current.

Professional ones can work at mains voltage of both 220V and 380V. They have a high current strength (over 200 Amps), and are designed for continuous operation in difficult industrial conditions.

Apparatus types

The following types of equipment are used in welding work:

  • transformers;
  • rectifiers;
  • inverters;
  • semi-automatic;
  • semiautomatic inverters;
  • generators (petrol or diesel).

How Welders Work

principle of operation

Depending on the type of equipment, the principle of operation varies.

transformer welding machine

This tool converts the electrical current and regulates it so that the welding arc is stable.

The principle of operation is as follows. On the core, acting as a magnetic circuit, the primary and secondary windings are located. In this case, one of them is fixed statically, and the second moves relative to the first along the magnistor. This ensures that the current is regulated. The main role of the tool is a step-down transformer.

Welding rectifier

This device, which is a power source, is based on the following elements:

  • transformer;
  • rectifier unit (thyristor or diode);
  • regulator.

The tool works by supplying an electric arc with direct current. The current passes through the secondary winding to the rectifier unit. Rectifiers can be silicon or selenium.

An additional throttle on the device will allow you to adjust the settings.

Welding inverter machine

Unlike a conventional rectifier, in which a single rectification of the current is performed, the inverter undergoes multiple current conversion according to various parameters.

Alternating current is converted by the primary mains rectifier. After that, it enters the filter. In this case, the voltage indicators do not change. Then the current is fed into the frequency converter. The output is a variable high frequency parameter.

After that, the transformer lowers the operating parameter to the values ​​​​of the open-circuit voltage of welding. Its rectification takes place in the secondary rectifying unit.


The difference between this tool and the above is that electrodes are not required when working with it. Welding is performed by melting a special wire in a gaseous medium. At the core is a conventional transformer.

The semi-automatic kit includes:

  • power supply;
  • wire feeder;
  • connecting hoses and cables;
  • burner;
  • — control system;
  • gas-containing capacity;
  • wire.

Semi-automatic inverter welding machines

At the heart of this device is an inverter. The welding process is identical to a conventional semi-automatic. Combines the advantages and disadvantages of an inverter and a semiautomatic device.

Generator for welding machine

The main task of this unit is to convert mechanical energy into electric current.

Its main parts:

  • stator with magnetic poles;
  • anchor with winding;
  • collectors.

In the armature winding, at the intersection of the turns with magnetic field lines (they are located on the stator poles), an alternating current arises. In the collectors, it is converted to direct current. Through the carbon brushes, it enters the clamps, and from them to the welding wires that lead to the electrode.

Characteristics of welding machines


Main characteristics

Switching frequency.

This characteristic allows you to determine what percentage of the operating cycle time (for different manufacturers it can be 5 or 10 minutes) the device can operate continuously, and how much it needs to rest.

For example, if the duty cycle is 10 minutes and the switching frequency is 30%, then this means 3 minutes. continuous work, and the need for 7 min. rest after it.

Most often, equipment is equipped with a protection system based on this parameter. When the maximum load level is reached, the device will automatically turn off to prevent overheating.

welding current.

In welding equipment, it can be:

  • variables;
  • permanent;
  • variable/permanent.

Variable current used in household power supply. It has interchangeable polarity, in which «+» and «-» change places with a frequency of 50 Hz. Some welding machines are capable of increasing the frequency to high values.

Alternating current has no concept of polarity, so there is no risk of incorrect connection of equipment. It is used most often for working with ferrous metals.

The disadvantage of this type of current is that the frequent reversal of polarity results in strong spattering of the molten metal.

This, in turn, reduces the quality of the weld.

DC type of current has a constant and unchanging focus. Due to this, the amount of spatter is significantly less than when using alternating current, and the quality of the seam is better. When connecting equipment, it is important to observe polarity.

The technology for the production of devices that use direct current is much more expensive, since it requires the inclusion of rectifiers.

Scope of application: processing of non-ferrous metals and stainless steel.

Devices using both direct and alternating current are universal. They can work in different conditions and with different metal. The cost is an order of magnitude higher than a simple tool.

Input voltage.

This characteristic indicates the voltage of the power supply for which the device is designed. Not only the voltage value itself is important, but also the connection method.

There are the following options:

  • single-phase (1 pair of contacts «0» — «phase»). Voltage — 220V. Such a tool works from a household outlet, due to which it has become widespread. Due to the high level of consumption, the load on the network increases, so powerful devices may require connection directly to the switchboard.
  • three-phase (3 pairs of contacts «0» — «phase»). Voltage — 380V. Tools with this voltage are not used in everyday life. They are mainly used in industrial premises with an appropriate network connection. Used for complex jobs that require high power.
  • single-phase / three-phase. Voltage — 220V / 380V. Depending on the purpose of the tool, one of the values ​​is key or additional.

Power consumption.

This parameter is measured in kW (kilowatt) and indicates the value of the maximum power for which the welding machine is designed.

The higher it is, the more current the equipment is capable of producing. This allows you to work with thick metal.

Open circuit voltage.

A measure of the voltage that the tool outputs to the electrodes. The value of the parameter depends on the type of machine, the type of welding and the electrodes used. Usually ranges from 40 to 90V.

Minimum welding current.

The smallest value of current at which the machine is able to weld metal. The parameter is important for evaluating the suitability of equipment for working with thin metal, in which a large current value is detrimental.

Maximum welding current.

The opposite value showing how capable the equipment is of handling thick metals using large diameter electrodes. The dependence of the material thickness on the welding current can be tracked using special tables.

Minimum electrode diameter.

The indicator determines the minimum value of the electrode with which the device is able to work.

Maximum electrode diameter.

Reverse option. The range of electrode sizes must be selected based on the requirements of the work to be done (type of welding, metal thickness, etc.).

Additional functions

To facilitate the work of the welder, manufacturers equip the equipment with some useful features:

  • Hot start. Designed to facilitate arc ignition. When the electrode touches the working surface, the current value briefly increases, and then returns to standard values;
  • Sticking protection. In this case, the device automatically lowers the current to the value at which it is easy to disconnect the stuck electrode;

Advice! Sticking occurs from the use of raw or low-quality electrodes.

Thus, to reduce the risk of this situation, it is necessary to buy them in a trusted specialized store and store them in a dry place with low humidity.

  • Arc forcing. With a critical decrease in the distance between the electrode and the metal, the device increases the welding current, which makes it possible to increase the melting rate of the electrode and the depth of the weld pool. Another way to avoid sticking;
  • Transport wheels. Allow one person to move even heavy equipment.

Equipment and accessories


Depending on the specific model of equipment, the package may vary. However, there is a necessary minimum that must be present in each kit:

  • welding machine;
  • 2 welding cables (about 2 meters long);
  • warranty passport;
  • instructions for use.

Additional items may also be included in the kit:

  • welding mask;
  • carrying case;
  • carrying handles;
  • shoulder straps;
  • brush for cleaning equipment.


welding accessories

To facilitate the work of the welder and the subsequent maintenance of the equipment, there are various kinds of accessories that can be divided into several groups:

Electrodes for welding machine:

  • for welding carbon and low alloy steel;
  • for surfacing;
  • for welding cast iron;
  • for welding non-ferrous metals;
  • for cutting;
  • for welding high-alloy steel;
  • for welding alloyed heat-resistant steel;
  • for welding dissimilar metals.

Sprays and pastes. The compositions are designed for different purposes:

  • fire protection of surfaces in close proximity to welding;
  • splash protection;
  • non-stick protection of gas burners and others.

Auxiliary materials:

  • welder’s mirror;
  • construction pencils and holders for chalk talc;
  • rulers and squares.

The accessories also include:

  • Burners.
  • Plasma cutters.
  • Electric holders.
  • Ground clamps.
  • Welding cables.




  • simple and inexpensive design;
  • high reliability;
  • ease of maintenance;
  • Efficiency is about 90%.

Welding Rectifier:

  • reliability of the weld;
  • stability of the electric arc;
  • low noise level.

Welding inverter:

  • compactness;
  • work accuracy;
  • stability of the welding arc;
  • the ability to work in a wide range of current;
  • overload protection;
  • the ability to work with any type of electrodes.


  • high quality weld;
  • small spatter of metal;
  • high performance.

Welding Generator:

  • electric arc stability;
  • high quality weld;
  • low sensitivity to power surges;
  • the ability to work with all known types of electrodes;
  • possibility of use in places where there are no sources of electricity.




  • large dimensions and weight;
  • high energy consumption;
  • strong dependence on power surges.

Welding Rectifier:

  • dependence on power surges;
  • sensitivity to dust and shock.

Welding inverter:

  • high price;
  • sensitivity to contamination of the electronic board.


  • low mobility;
  • sensitivity to weather conditions.

Welding Generator:

  • complexity of maintenance;
  • high price;
  • in comparison with transformers, low efficiency;
  • high energy consumption.

How to choose


It is necessary to select a welding machine depending on the purposes and operating conditions. Before making a purchase decision, it is worth answering a few questions:

  • In what conditions is the work planned (indoor/street)?
  • Is the compactness and mobility of the tool important?
  • Do you need more power (how thick is the metal planned to be processed)?
  • Is there access to electricity at the place of work?
  • What type of metal is planned to be processed?

Having decided on the volume and purpose of the work, it is easier to choose a device with exactly those characteristics that are suitable for specific conditions.

If the scope of work is small and does not require high accuracy, but there is no electricity on site, it is not necessary to purchase an expensive welding generator. It would be more logical to buy a compact single-phase device and a 220V gasoline / diesel generator.

Which welding machine is better

which is better

There is no specific model that would be better in all respects. It all depends on the specific needs and conditions.

Apparatus for a professional welder. In this case, a more versatile device is required, with high power and a wide range of settings to work in various conditions with different metals.

Household welding machine. For these purposes, there is no need to buy an expensive and powerful device. The potential of the tool will most likely not be used to the end, and it is not worth overpaying for it. An inexpensive machine for manual arc welding with alternating current will cope with household work.

In any case, you should pay attention to the following factors:

  • manufacturer;
  • terms of warranty service;
  • level of service development;
  • availability of spare parts.



Maintenance, care and prevention

Timely maintenance, care and prevention of welding equipment are essential tools for a long service life. Regular maintenance of these works ensures good performance and will help to avoid serious breakdown in the future.

It is necessary to carry out the following actions:

  • regular checks of the main elements of the device to identify external signs of a malfunction (violation of insulation, melting of contacts, etc.);
  • cleaning and lubricating parts;
  • performance testing and analysis.

During operation, keep the power supply away from heat sources, protect it from mechanical damage and precipitation.

Precautionary measures

precautionary measures

Violation of safety regulations when working with welding equipment can lead to serious consequences:

  • fire;
  • explosion;
  • injuries (electric shock, burns, mechanical damage);
  • death of people.

To be allowed to work, a welder must have:

  1. vocational training;
  2. documented work permit;
  3. medical work permit.

To avoid unpleasant consequences, the following precautions must be observed.

  • Wear a dry protective suit and leggings to avoid electric shock. It is forbidden to touch with bare hands the electrodes and the housing of the equipment under voltage. Be especially careful when working in high humidity conditions.
  • The welding helmet will protect against arc radiation and damage to the face of the welder.
  • The room in which work is carried out must be well ventilated to prevent poisoning by gas and smoke.
  • At high noise levels, hearing protection is required.
  • There must be no combustible and flammable substances near the welding work. Fire extinguishers should be available in the immediate vicinity.



Manufacturers of welding equipment set different warranty periods. On average, it is from 1 to 3 years. Terms of warranty service for each model are individual. They can be found in the technical data sheet or on the manufacturer’s website.

The warranty is calculated from the moment the device is handed over to the buyer. In addition, free scheduled equipment maintenance may be offered as part of the warranty program.

It includes:

  • diagnostics;
  • replacement of electrodes in agreement with the owner;
  • setting;
  • cleaning;
  • parameter testing.

The warranty does not cover equipment:

  • having external damage;
  • modified by the owner;
  • used in unacceptable conditions;
  • having traces of unauthorized repair;
  • operated with violations of requirements;
  • with damaged markings;
  • completely exhausted the resource declared by the manufacturer;
  • with an expired warranty.

Also, the manufacturer’s obligations do not apply to:

  • individual parts subject to natural wear;
  • parts whose wear depends on operating conditions;
  • equipment adjustment.

If the welding equipment breaks down due to the fault of the manufacturer, the user is entitled to a free repair. To do this, you must personally or by mail (I use protective shipping packaging) send the equipment to the warranty service center. In this case, be sure to present the warranty card.

Important! The warranty period is extended by the time of repair and shipment.

Claim work with buyers is regulated by the Law on the Protection of Consumer Rights. In accordance with its requirements, the repair period cannot exceed 45 calendar days. For each day of delay, the consumer has the right to demand the payment of a penalty fee.

Faults and repairs


Common malfunctions and breakdowns depend on the specific type of welding machine.

Malfunctions of welding transformers.

Poor contact in the terminal block to which the welding cables are connected. Leads to strong heating of the connection, destruction of insulation and short circuit. It is eliminated by sorting out the heating connection, stripping the contact group and clamping them for tighter contact.

Spontaneous shutdown of equipment. Occurs immediately after the device is connected to the network due to protection operation. Probable causes are a short circuit in the high voltage circuit, between the turns of the coils, as well as a malfunction of the capacitors. For repair, it is imperative to disconnect the device from the mains and eliminate the defect by restoring the insulation or replacing the capacitors.

Excessive transformer hum. Often accompanied by overheating. The likely cause is loose bolts or transformer overload. Also, buzz occurs due to a short circuit between the cables or sheets of the magnetic circuit.

Strong heating of the device. Most often occurs due to exceeding the permissible load level.

The limit values ​​for the declared current and electrode diameter must be observed.

Otherwise, the equipment may fail.

Lack of welding current. Occurs due to low mains voltage or a breakdown of the current regulator.

Consumption of a large amount of current without load. The reason is the closure of the turns of the winding. The insulation needs to be restored. For the same reason, a sudden break in the welding arc is possible without the possibility of its restoration.

Malfunctions of welding inverters.

Transistor burnout. It is considered a weak point of inverters. In the event of equipment failure, it is necessary to first check the transistors. To check them, you need to use a multimeter.

Breakage of driver elements. Checked with an ohmmeter. If necessary, defective elements can be replaced with suitable analogues.

Defective input and output rectifiers.

Control board failure. The most complex piece of equipment. Performance is checked with an oscilloscope.

Arc instability. Occurs due to incorrect current setting.

Overheating of the device. Probable causes are long work under heavy load, failure of the cooling system, or contamination of the board.

It is quite possible to repair transformers with your own hands. Welding inverters have a more complex design, and for their repair it is necessary not only to have the appropriate equipment, but also to have special knowledge and skills.

It should be remembered that the repair and maintenance of welding equipment can cause serious harm to health. In the absence of the necessary knowledge and experience for these purposes, it is better to turn to professionals.


Aurora PRO

Aurora PRO

The devices of this brand are produced exclusively on the basis of inverter-type equipment. Joint production of the AURORA group of companies and the Chinese company RILAND Industry, where they assemble equipment for Russia. The official website of the manufacturer is

The company offers a wide range of welding equipment in all areas: MMA, MIG/MAG, TIG, SPOT, PLASMA.

Warranty for all types of tools — 2 years.



Italian company, leading European manufacturer. The beginning of the production of welding equipment — 1963. Start of deliveries to Russia — 2002.

Specializes in the manufacture of all known types of tools and accessories. Production is established in Italy. The official website is

Warranty — 1 year.



German manufacturer of welding equipment. Production is established in several countries of Europe and Asia. A wide range of equipment and accessories for various purposes (inverters, rectifiers, transformers, semiautomatic devices).

Official site —

Warranty — 1 year.



Manufacturer of welding equipment, accessories and garden equipment. It offers various equipment for welding and cutting metals, as well as MMA-MIG-MAG-TIG welding multisystems.

The official website of the company’s online store is

Warranty — 1 year.



The company is engaged in the manufacture of inverter welding machines. The range of models is small. Official website —

Warranty — 1 year.



Italian brand made in China. A wide range of welding equipment and accessories. It has representative offices and service centers in 16 cities of Russia, which greatly facilitates maintenance. Official site —

Warranty — 1 year.



A German company producing various types of equipment for construction and repair: internal vibrators, drills, screwdrivers, spray guns, etc. Welding tools — inverter type. Factories are located in Germany and Switzerland.

The company has its own staff of specialists who create new technologies. Official website —

The warranty for equipment purchased after April 1, 2014 is 2 years. Prior to that, it was 1 year.



Russian manufacturer of welding equipment: inverters, semiautomatic devices, devices for argon-arc and manual arc welding. The company positions itself as a manufacturer of tools adapted to harsh climatic conditions. Official website —

Warranty — 2 years.


Welders 3

An American company that manufactures, among other equipment, inverter welding machines. This direction is not the main one. It has a wide network of service centers. The official website is

Basic warranty is 1 year. In the case of purchase of equipment for personal use, an extended warranty period of 3 years is provided. At the same time, every 6 months, the consumer is obliged to undergo scheduled maintenance at the company’s service center.



Another American manufacturer of equipment for construction and repair. Offers, among other things, welding machines: inverters and semiautomatic devices. Has a research center. It has a network of authorized service centers. The official website is

Warranty — 1 year.



One of the most popular manufacturer of inverter welding machines on the market. In addition to them, it specializes in the manufacture of voltage stabilizers. Developed service. Official website —

Warranty — 1 year.



Russian manufacturer of power tools. Assembles inverter and semi-automatic welding machines. It has a wide network of service centers. Official site — stavr.rf.

Warranty — 2 years.



A company specializing in the production of inverter welding machines. Products are assembled in a Chinese factory. Official website —

The warranty period, depending on the equipment, is from 2 to 5 years.



British company producing welding equipment and accessories of various kinds. It has a good network of service centers. There is no official website.

Warranty — 3 years.

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Welding mask


Welding works are classified as particularly hazardous to health. Vision falls into the zone of increased risk of getting an industrial injury. Welding helmets are used to protect him.

They serve as a barrier to optical radiation, molten metal particles and thermal effects.

How does a welding mask work?


During welding, there are several types of hazards to human health:

  • Hot metal particles.
  • Thermal radiation.
  • optical radiation.
  • Harmful gases.

Therefore, the welder’s mask is made of a material that protects against the effects of hot metal and the thermal factor.

The light filter protects from optical radiation (ultraviolet and infrared rays). The design provides for the use of a respirator with protection against welding gases.

Additional features include:

  • automatic adjustment of glass dimming, sensitivity;
  • turning off the filter;
  • opening delays;
  • comfort of fixing the headband;
  • the ability to wear corrective glasses;
  • ventilation system;
  • protection against mechanical damage.

The material used as a filter screen in masks, visors, goggles depends on the manufacturer and model.

The simplest ones weaken the effect of optical radiation, while newer technologies involve automatic dimming, which is triggered at the moment welding begins.

Tinted glasses in shields and glasses are still found. They are produced by adding metals and are unable to completely protect against UV and IR radiation. In such personal protective equipment (PPE), welding can be done for a short time.

Another minus of glasses is the moment when welding starts. Such a light filter is dark from the very beginning and the seam is not visible through it. Therefore, in order to “aim”, the welder raises his goggles, shield and begins work. At this moment, “bunnies” are caught, which lead to retinal edema or cataracts. Given this minus, the Chameleon filter has been developed.

«Chameleons» are presented as a complex of devices:

  • Protective film and glass. Protection against mechanical impact of molten metal particles.
  • liquid crystals. They are located between the polarizing films.
  • polarizing films.
  • Infrared and ultraviolet filter. Only visible rays pass through, protecting against harmful effects even when turned off.
  • Sensors (2-4 pcs.). Record the appearance of an electric arc.
  • Power supply (voltage source for polarizing films). Lithium or solar batteries, or a combination.
  • Electronic block with control system.

The principle of operation of the welding helmet «Chamelion»: sensors detect the appearance of an electric arc, transmit a signal to the electronic unit, which creates a voltage on the polarizing films, and they act on the crystals. Lined up in a certain sequence, liquid crystals create the dimming required for work.

Such masks are able to protect even in the off state from optical radiation, thanks to filters.

If the «Chameleon» mask is of high quality, then the light filter is minimally obscured before starting work, which makes it possible to see the welding site and the tool itself. And at the moment of the appearance of the electric arc, automatic dimming occurs.

Types of welding helmets



Glasses are considered one of the simple PPE of the welder’s organs of vision.

Three models are distinguished by design.

open. Adjacent goggles with side protection, which can be both part of the design and a separate element. The light filter is made of mineral glass, polycarbonate. Used for auxiliary work.

Closed. Close-fitting goggles held in position with a headband. They encircle the supraorbital in such a way that light and radiation penetrate only through the filter and coverslip.

According to technical requirements, closed glasses have ventilation and an anti-fog function.

There are models with a folding light filter, which allows you to evaluate the quality of the seam.

Chameleons. They can be attributed to an improved model of closed glasses. In this case, LCD screens are used. They can be automated or manual.

According to general requirements, glasses must perform the following functions and have the following characteristics:

  • Protection against mechanical impact (industrial dust, hot metal particles, sparks from electrodes).
  • Strong fixation on the head with a headband, so its width must be at least 100 mm.
  • Light filters corresponding to the type of welding. It is impossible to apply the PPE of a gas welder to an electric welder. These works differ in the intensity of exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
  • Wide view.
  • Fit snugly to the face, without undue pressure.
  • Optimal optical class. Poor quality glasses threaten the loss of visual acuity.
  • Ventilation to prevent fogging of filters.
  • The material from which the product is made should not cause itching, irritation, or allergies.
  • A light weight. Filter thickness up to 3 mm.
  • Availability for glass replacement, batteries.

Welder glasses are used for low-intensity and auxiliary work.

These models do not cover the face from the effects of thermal and mechanical effects. For additional protection, use creams with UV protection.

Shields and masks


Shields (they are also masks) have a greater degree of protection than goggles and completely cover the face of the welder.

There are several types of design features.

With a handle. When working with a welding machine, it is required to hold the shield against the face. Lenses are made of mineral glass, polycarbonate.

With helmet attachment. It is performed more often in the form of an adjacent screen. For such shields, a certain type of helmets is suitable. As a rule, manufacturers produce a whole line in the complex.

In industries with a high risk of mechanical injury, a helmet is a mandatory PPE. In such cases, either welding goggles or shields are used, but not every model is attached to a helmet. For this, special models of shields are provided.

with headband. Adjustment of models should be carried out both in terms of the girth of the head and in the parietal part. The adjustment step should be up to 10 mm. Tape width from 18 mm.

Universal. They have a head mount and a handle in their design.

The requirements for welding shields are the same as for glasses, with a few exceptions related to design features:

  • Strong fixation. In the case of a headband, adjustment in two directions (horizontal, vertical).
  • Neck protection.
  • The distance between the forehead and the helmet is at least 30 mm.
  • In conditions of increased gas contamination, provide a forced ventilation system.
  • A light weight. Up to 600 grams.

Light filters for shields:

  • Tinted glass. Manufactured with the addition of copper and nickel. The maximum degree of dimming is in the range of 10 DIN, 11 DIN, 12 DIN. Which corresponds to GOST C5 — C7 (used with a current strength of 60 to 350 A). Minimum degree of dimming 9 DIN (current up to 30 A).
  • polymeric materials. They have different degrees of darkening, are used in combination with protective glass as a darkening filter.
  • Chameleon (auto dimming). Filtering mechanism based on liquid crystal polarization, considered professional. The minimum degree of dimming is from 5 DIN to 7 DIN. Maximum over 13 DIN.

The characteristics of the filters are displayed in the marking, which is indicated by numbers through a fraction.

For example: 1/1/1/1 where

  • The first digit is the optical class. Responsible for the clarity of the image. Depends on the protective glass, film, assembly.
  • The second is light scattering. Shows how cloudy the picture will be. Depends on the quality of optical crystals.
  • The third is uniformity. Shading uniformity.
  • The fourth is angular dependence. Indicates the degree of obscuration from the angle of view.

The higher the numbers in the marking, the worse this or that quality of the filter.

There are three types of automatic shading system for Chameleon masks:

  • Dimming occurs automatically to the desired level of protection when a welding arc occurs.
  • With manual adjustment. Models are independently dimmed from the minimum to the maximum value when a welding arc occurs, but the welder has the ability to adjust the degree of dimming.
  • With automatic settings. An improved model that also adjusts the gradation code depending on the illumination created by the welding arc.

Another important characteristic is the switching time. Light filters begin to work more slowly at sub-zero temperatures.

Manufacturers do not recommend the use of devices at temperatures of -10 ° C and below.

At low temperatures, the switching time can be > 100 µs, but during intensive work it has a negative effect on vision.

There are three switching ranges:

  • ≤ 50 µs — for intensive work;
  • 51 — 75 µs — medium intensity;
  • 76 — 100 µs — domestic use.

The slower the switching speed, the lower the chance of a negative impact of welding on vision.

In «Chameleon» masks, depending on the model, there are 2 types of adjustment: internal and external. Definitely, the external one is convenient and allows you to change the parameters without removing the mask during operation.
block management

Functions of welding masks:

On / off system. It saves battery or battery power. And when you turn it off, the «grinding» mode appears. The viewing glass becomes transparent. Not all masks have this feature.

Dimming adjustment. Manual mode corrects automatic settings.

Sensitivity adjustment. The threshold depends on the place of work.

Indoors, the sensitivity is set high, in an open sunny area it is lowered, since there is a response to sun glare.

Delay time adjustment. At the end of welding, the seam and adjacent edges continue to emit an invisible infrared spectrum. Therefore, with a sharp switch to the reverse mode, the welder’s vision is exposed to harmful factors.

Ventilation system. The function is required in all masks. Prevents fogging and creates comfort for the worker. In products for work in closed, gassed rooms, a separate forced ventilation with air supply control is provided. The masks also have a filtration system.

Some models are equipped with additional lighting.

For all types of PPE, viewing window parameters are important.



Each constructive type has a list of advantages.

Advantages of welding goggles:

  • Light weight, minimal dimensions.
  • Used for welding in confined spaces.
  • A wide range of. Models are selected for a particular type of welding and its intensity.
  • The appearance of models with chameleon light filters significantly expands the scope.
  • PPE with a lifting mechanism allows you to control the quality of the weld.
  • Use in conjunction with head and respiratory protection.

Shields are universal, manual:

  • Complete protection of the welder’s face from optical radiation, mechanical and thermal effects.
  • Easy filter replacement.
  • Availability for home use.
  • The simplicity of the design makes it possible to control the quality of work.

Shields for helmets:

  • Assume the use in areas where there is a high probability of mechanical injury.
  • There are products with a lifting mechanism.
  • No need to hold by hand.

Advantages of welding helmets with a headband:

  • Possibility of tight fixation due to adjustable straps.
  • Complete protection against optical radiation, thermal and mechanical effects.
  • No hand support required.
  • Lifting and locking mechanism of the shield.
  • Easy access to change filters and protective glasses — the ability to use masks for various types of welding.

Advantages of chameleon welding masks:

  • Full face protection.
  • Complete protection of the organs of vision at the time of the appearance of the welding arc.
  • Adjustment of sensitivity, dimming, delay time will allow you to set the optimal settings for a specific type, intensity, welding location, as well as for a specific worker.
  • Forced ventilation involves working in an aggressive environment.
  • Automatic darkening adjustment makes it possible to control the work process and the quality of the seam without removing / lifting PPE.
  • Adjustment of the headband fixes the mask as comfortably as possible for the individual structural features of the welder’s head.
  • Models provide protection for the neck from optical radiation, mechanical and thermal effects.

Some models have an off / on function that completely removes the blackout, which allows the equipment to be used both for cutting metal and for grinding work.



Disadvantages of welding goggles:

  • There is no complete protection of the face from thermal exposure, ultraviolet radiation, molten metal particles.
  • In models with tinted glasses, there is a high probability of corneal burns. Since the light filter is darkened, before the start of the welding process, the visibility of the welding area is minimal and the worker takes aim with the filter up.

Disadvantages of manual and universal welding helmets:

  • As with glasses, there is a high chance of corneal burns when aiming.
  • The welding process itself becomes more complicated, since you have to hold the shield with one hand.

Disadvantages of helmet shields:

  • The probability of getting a corneal burn at the time of the appearance of the welding arc.
  • Limited adjustment to the size of the welder’s face, the likelihood of a loose fit.

Disadvantages of chameleon welding masks:

  • Temperature operating range from -10 to +50°C. It is not recommended to use at sub-zero temperatures. The switching time will increase, the dimming quality will decrease.
  • Do not store in the sun and in rooms without heating, there is a high probability of failure of the device.
  • Models with built-in batteries cannot be replaced.
  • Expensive repairs.
  • High price. This applies to professional models with a forced ventilation system.
  • Incorrect ventilation will later lead to failure of the filter control unit (contacts are oxidized).

How to choose a welding helmet?


Before choosing, you should decide on the following data:

  • intensity of use. It will help to decide in which line to choose a model: household or professional.
  • Where the mask will be used. In an open area or in a darkened room.
  • Type of welding. PPE of the organs of vision for gas welding is not suitable for electric welding.
  • The current used in electric welding. Affects the dimming factor of the filter.
  • The probability of intense mechanical impact from the outside. Whether an impact-resistant mask body is required.

For rare use, a regular mask or goggles will do.

When choosing, pay attention to the following indicators:

  • optical class;
  • scattering of light;
  • homogeneity;
  • angular dependence;
  • viewing area;
  • protection against mechanical impact;
  • landing comfort;
  • when correcting vision, the ability to wear optical glasses under PPE;
  • certification (will protect against forgery).

Signature is important:

  • E — electric welding,
  • G — gas welding,
  • B — auxiliary work,
  • C — marking for «chameleon» light filters.

If intensive work is planned, then it is better to look at the Chameleon masks.

When choosing eye and respiratory protection, you should pay attention to a number of options.

Power sources. As a rule, there are two of them — lithium and solar batteries. When the battery is low, they give a light or sound signal. And in the event of a complete discharge of one of the sources, the second continues to feed the light filter and it will not turn off during operation. It is important to pay attention to the availability of replacement batteries.

Function enable/disable. This option increases the service life of both the power supply and the filter itself and ventilation. In the off state, you can work in grinding mode.

The location of the adjustment block. It is desirable that it be on the front of the mask. This allows you to adjust the settings without interrupting your work.

Filtration system. Provides comfort during work and freedom of breathing. If welding is carried out in rooms with a polluted atmosphere, a mask with a forced ventilation system is selected.

Number of sensorsaffect the speed of response.

Adjustment of sensitivity, opening time, darkening, viewing angle, grinding mode provide additional comfort during work and expand the scope of the mask.

Before the final choice, you should try on the mask, check the adjustment of the headband, and evaluate the area of ​​the viewing window. This will help determine the comfort of the PPE.

Be sure to request a certificate, specify the warranty period and where the equipment will be repaired. Specify the information about the availability of additional components and the timing of their delivery.

Pay attention to the marking of the light filter and the housing itself.

The best is the equipment that will provide comfortable working conditions.

If we take the main characteristics, then the marking of the filter should be 1/1/1/2 (optical class, uniformity, light scattering).

The choice of design depends on personal preference. The main thing is to choose a product that will provide a snug fit and will not allow optical radiation to penetrate into the gaps. Be sure to pay attention to ventilation.

How to use?


  • Before starting work, it is recommended to check the serviceability of the light filter using a lighter. If blackout occurs, then the equipment is working. No — check the power supply.
  • It is impossible to use «Chameleon» without protective internal and external glass.
  • If the filter and protective glass are scratched or cracked, the equipment must not be used.
  • After use, wipe the device with a soft cloth. Abrasives are not allowed.
  • The Chameleon mask should be stored in a dark, heated, dry place.
  • Replace power supplies in a timely manner.

Failure to follow these storage guidelines may result in malfunction of the liquid crystal filter.



The warranty period of the equipment depends on the manufacturer and ranges from 12 to 24 months.

Repair and replacement of equipment is carried out in the presence of a passport for a mask, a coupon and a receipt, so be sure to keep the documents.

The warranty conditions apply to manufacturing defects, which are confirmed by the service department.

Otherwise, the repair is paid.

The warranty does not cover:

  • for damage as a result of improper operation;
  • when trying to self-repair;
  • for damage caused by improper storage.

You can replace filters, protective glasses and lithium batteries yourself.



If we consider products with ordinary tinted glasses, then most of the malfunctions occur from mechanical stress. In such cases, the filter or protective glass is replaced (depending on the model).

In the case of the Chameleon masks, everything is more complicated. The following problems are identified:

  • the light filter is very dark,
  • there is no blackout;
  • The degree of darkness cannot be adjusted.

To begin with, it is recommended to charge the mask by exposing it to the sun or changing the lithium batteries.

If the problem is not solved, contact the service center for a warranty case.

In the event of the expiration of the warranty period, it is recommended to check the contacts. In inexpensive masks, they are often soldered or oxidized.

You should purchase spare parts from the manufacturer, as other modifications may not be suitable.

Welding mask manufacturers


Aurora is a group of companies specializing in the production of various equipment, including welding equipment and accessories. Located in the budget segment. Has ubiquitous service centers. Guarantee 1 year from the date of sale through a retail network. Repairs will extend the warranty period.

Elitech. Trademark that produces budget products. They use the capacity of partner factories for production. It has more than 200 service centers in Russia and abroad. Warranty period 1 year.

foxweld. European firm. Specializes in the production of welding equipment. A budget option. Extensive network of service centers. Warranty period from 6 months.

FUBAG. A European company specializing in the production of professional equipment, including welding equipment. Warranty 2 years.

Interskol. Russian manufacturer of tools for public use. The range of welding helmets is small. Warranty 1 year.

Patriot. American brand. Places plants around the world, including in Russia and China. Warranty period 1 year.

Prorab. A Russian company places orders at factories in China. Amateur equipment, budget option. Warranty 1 year.

Quattro Elementi. European firm. Manufacture of welding and pumping equipment. Warranty period 1 year.

Svarog. Russian representative of Shenzhen Jasic Technology CO., LTD. Direction — welding equipment. The line is wide enough. Middle price segment. Warranty period 1 year.

Udarnik. Russian manufacturer. Direction welding equipment. Budget option for lovers. Warranty period 1 year.

Wolsomez. Russian production specializing in the production of personal protective equipment for industrial enterprises. Light filters are produced according to the patented Swiss technology. Middle price segment. Warranty period 1 year.

3M. Specialization products for professionals and amateurs, PPE. Line for protection for welding: from budget options to premium class. Warranty 1 year.

souz. Russian company with factories in China. Specific household tool. Warranty 1 year.

Spec. Russian firm. The emphasis is on household tools. Warranty 1 year.

Wester. This brand has British roots. Direction welding equipment, including professional. Warranty up to 3 years.

The safety of welding work depends on the quality of the filter, and the main complaints are about them: a short service life and difficulty with repairs. You should not chase a low price if you need eye protection for intensive use.

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